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This article questions the rather pessimistic conclusions of Allen and Carroll [Macroeconomic Dynamics 5 (2001), 255–271] about the ability of consumers to learn the optimal buffer-stock-based consumption rule. To this end, we develop an agent-based model in which alternative learning schemes can be compared in terms of the consumption behavior that they yield. We show that neither purely adaptive learning nor social learning based on imitation can ensure satisfactory consumption behavior. In contrast, if the agents can form adaptive expectations, based on an evolving individual mental model, their behavior becomes much more interesting in terms of its regularity and its ability to improve performance (which is a clear manifestation of learning). Our results indicate that assumptions on bounded rationality and on adaptive expectations are perfectly compatible with sound and realistic economic behavior, which, in some cases, can even converge to the optimal solution. This framework may therefore be used to develop macroeconomic models with adaptive dynamics.
The effectiveness of applying a high-frequency, low-energy, reactive gas plasma for the removal of hydrocarbon contamination from specimens and components for electron microscopy has been investigated with a variety of analytical techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of specimens that have been plasma cleaned shows an elimination of the carbonaceous contamination from the specimen. With extended cleaning times the removal of existing carbon contamination debris due to previously conducted
microanalysis is shown. Following plasma cleaning, specimens may be examined in the electron microscope for several hours without exhibiting evidence of recontamination. The effectiveness of plasma cleaning is not limited to applications for TEM specimens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) specimens that have been plasma cleaned likewise show an elimination of carbonaceous contamination. Furthermore, other electron microscopy parts and accessories, such as aperture strips, specimen clamping rings, and Wehnelts, among
others, can benefit from plasma cleaning.
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