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Chaetodon striatus is a cosmopolitan seawater species present in aquaria all over the world and its extractivism is quite high. The lack of studies on the reproductive biology of C. striatus contributes to the difficulty in managing the species outside its natural habitat. Without knowledge of the mechanisms that control or affect gonadal changes, reproduction of C. striatus in captivity has become almost impossible, considering that the species is quite sensitive and the effect of captive conditions on its reproductive biology is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect on its reproductive biology of the animal’s confinement and possible alteration in structure of the ovaries. In C. striatus, after oocyte development, for animals confined in small spaces, maturing oocytes undergo atresia. During atresia, ovarian follicles were at different stages of degeneration, characterized by the progressive loss of the basement membrane and disorganization of the follicle complex. In the advanced stage of follicular atresia, there was total loss of the basement membrane, culminating in degradation of the follicle complex. In unconfined animals, oocyte development and maturation were not affected. Confinement also affected the cell structure of the germinal epithelium, which showed large numbers of apoptotic bodies. The difference in cortisol and glucose levels between the unconfined and confined groups was significant, which may have to do with the change found in the ovaries, such as extensive follicular atresia and loss of the basement membrane.
This study examines the first precisely dated and temporally highly resolved speleothem record from Iberia that reconstructs the Oldest Dryas (OD). The onset of cold conditions in the study area, contemporary with the beginning of Heinrich Stadial 1, is recorded at 18.13 ± 0.08 ka, with a pronounced drop of 6.1‰ in δ13C in 250 years. Henceforth, stadial conditions depict a period of instability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, peaking in freshwater input from iceberg melting during Heinrich Event 1. Anomalies in the δ18O of the stalagmite attributed to such a freshwater event are found from 16.17 to 15.89 ka. Such absolute dates given to the onset of the OD in Iberia and to the main iceberg discharges are reliable anchor points for non-absolute chronologies. Two periods are identified in the OD: OD-a (18.13–16.17 ka) is characterized by wet conditions and a faster growth rate, and OD-b (15.89–14.81 ka) exhibits relative dryness and a slower growth rate. The sudden release of fresh water is considered to be the reason for the disruption of rainfall patterns in eastern Iberia. The present study also highlights the existence of heterogeneous and complex hydrological conditions during the OD in Iberia when both Atlantic and Mediterranean realms are considered.
Stress during pregnancy has been widely studied and associated to different variables, usually with negative results for the health of the mother and the newborn, such as having a higher risk of suffering postpartum depression, premature birth, obstetrics complications or low birthweight, among others. However, there are not many lines of research that study the role that the sex of the baby plays on this specific stress and vice versa. Thus, the main objective was to analyse the relationship between the sex of the offspring and the stress of the mothers in the first trimester of pregnancy. In order to achieve this, 108 women had their biological stress measured (trough hair cortisol levels) and psychological stress evaluated (the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire (PSS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PDQ) and the Stress Vulnerability Inventory (IVE)). The results revealed significant differences in maternal hair cortisol levels in the first trimester based on the sex of the baby they had given birth to (t = −2.04; P < 0.05): the concentration of the hormone was higher if the baby was a girl (164.36:54.45-284.87 pg/mg) than if it was a boy (101.13:37.95-193.56 pg/mg). These findings show that the sex of the future baby could be conditioned, among many other variables, by the mother´s stress levels during conception and first weeks of pregnancy. Further research is needed in this area to support our findings.
The Monitoring Studies (MS) program, the approach developed by RedETS to generate postlaunch real-world evidence (RWE), is intended to complement and enhance the conventional health technology assessment process to support health policy decision making in Spain, besides informing other interested stakeholders, including clinicians and patients. The MS program is focused on specific uncertainties about the real effect, safety, costs, and routine use of new and insufficiently assessed relevant medical devices carefully selected to ensure the value of the additional research needed, by means of structured, controlled, participative, and transparent procedures. However, despite a clear political commitment and economic support from national and regional health authorities, several difficulties were identified along the development and implementation of the first wave of MS, delaying its execution and final reporting. Resolution of these difficulties at the regional and national levels and a greater collaborative impulse in the European Union, given the availability of an appropriate methodological framework already provided by EUnetHTA, might provide a faster and more efficient comparative RWE of improved quality and reliability at the national and international levels.
Pulses such as peas, beans or lentils are one of the most complete foods at the nutritional level; however, they are one of the most often neglected foods in the diets of university students. Entrance to university translates into a major lifestyle change for many young people, and the habits acquired or cemented at this time will remain into adulthood. The objective of this study is to analyse the association between personal/sociodemographic factors, dietary intake of other food groups and the consumption of pulses in first-year university students. This cross-sectional study is part of the UniHcos project, a multicentre study of multipurpose prospective cohorts in eleven Spanish universities. Data from 9862 university students were collected through an online self-questionnaire completed by all students who met the selection criteria and agreed to participate in the project during the 2011–2018 academic years. Of students, 75·8 % presented an inadequate (≤2 times/week) consumption of pulses. Living outside the family home in either a student residence (OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·84) or rental (OR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·70, 0·95) decreased the compliance with recommendations on the consumption of pulses. Low consumption of pulses is seemingly not restricted to a specific profile or dietary pattern among university students, and no specific focus group for intervention can be identified. Policies promoting the consumption of pulses among the university population as a whole are necessary to increase compliance rates with the dietary recommendations.
The behavior problems in residents may affect professionals’ performance at work, quality of work life, and even their health. Thus, it is important to have instruments that allow to estimate their prevalence. The objective of this study was to validate the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist-Nursing Homes (RMBPC-NH; Allen et al., 2003) in a Spanish population. Specifically, it was tested the factor structure of the RMBPC-NH proposed by Wagner et al. (1995). Moreover, the relevance of the different types of problems for the working performance, at the level of individuals and institutions, was explored.
In the present study, a total of 200 professionals participated.
A Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted using WLSMV estimator in Mplus 7. Results showed a good fit to the data for the four-factor model (?2(813) = 1733.73, p<.001, CFI = .90, TIL = .90, RMSEA = .08). Thus, it can be concluded that the original factor structure proposed by Wagner et al. (1995) and replicated by Allen et al. (2003) can also be applied to Spanish staff nursing homes. The reliability of the scale was adequate (α from .86 to .93). Moreover, different descriptive and correlational results showed that both the factor scores of the Spanish adaptation of the RMBPC-NH and the importance of each type of problem were associated to different variable related.
After analyzing the factor structure, reliability and validity of the adaptation of the RMBPC-NH scale for Spanish staff nursing homes it has found that it has good psychometric properties, so it could be a useful tool for this population.
This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (grant number PSI2016-79803-R).
The objective of this article is to analyze the determinants of world wine exports in the first globalization, taking into account the principal exporting countries and using an extended version of the gravity model. The article distinguishes between ordinary- and high-quality wines. Our econometric results show that wine exports were not affected by the increase in the size of the markets of consuming countries, since in most of them wine was an alcoholic beverage consumed by a very small minority of the population. The harvests of the producing countries, particularly in preceding years, significantly and positively affected their exports. Conversely, the harvests of importers hurt exports as there was a home bias in consumption due to cultural, price, or tariff protection reasons. In the interwar period, the wine trade was severely affected by a series of shocks such as WWI, the Soviet revolution, the Prohibition, and the 1930s depression. As was the case with trade as a whole, the fall in transaction costs, favored exports, at least those of lower-priced and lower-quality wine. However, the liberalization of trade had a lesser impact on wine than on other products. (JEL Classifications: F14, N50, Q13, Q17)
Butterflyfish Chaetodon striatus is highly sought after in the marine ornamental aquarium, although studies about its reproductive biology are scarce. Therefore, to contribute to a better understanding of the reproductive aspects of C. striatus, we describe in detail with the use of high resolution histology the cellular dynamics of the germinal epithelium during the reproductive life history of this species. Based on the activity of the germinal epithelium, this study describes different stages of the gonadal development, similar to the reproductive phases found in other fish, to determine the reproductive period of C. striatus. In characterization of gonadal development, the following germ cells are described for males: spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. Oogonia, early, primary, secondary, full-grown and maturing oocytes are described for females. Female germinal epithelium of C. striatus showed substantial changes over the study period, indicating that there was an active spawning period. Male germinal epithelium also presented relevant alterations, indicating reproductive activity in the testicular lobules. Morphological data confirm how informative was the cellular dynamics of the germinal epithelium for understanding gonadal development during adult reproductive life of fish in general. Although Chaetodon are a popular species, previous studies have only produced superficial and rough histological analyses. Therefore, this study demonstrates important information on germinal epithelium of Chaetodon. This knowledge could be a fundamental tool for development of new strategies for breeding of several species in captivity, especially butterflyfishes.
Little information exists on how to garner political commitment to strengthen large-scale breastfeeding policies and programmes by targeting key decision makers. The present study aims to map and describe the influence of stakeholders involved in breastfeeding policy and programming and identify opportunities to strengthen the breastfeeding-friendly environment in Mexico. A total of nine key informants from seventeen stakeholder organisations were selected based on their in-depth knowledge of the breastfeeding environment in Mexico and were individually interviewed using Net-Map methodology. This participatory interview technique combines stakeholder mapping, social network analysis and influence mapping to identify relevant stakeholders. Participants identified a total of fifty-five stakeholders shaping breastfeeding programmes and policies through four domains of influence: commands (n 32 stakeholders), dissemination (n 40), funding (n 35) and technical assistance (n 37). The Federal Ministry of Health emerged as the most influential stakeholder of breastfeeding policy and programming decisions in Mexico among all domains of influence. The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit as well as the National Institute of Public Health were identified as additional key stakeholders providing funding and technical assistance to the Federal Ministry of Health, respectively. Engaging identified key stakeholders can generate a multisectoral commitment to breastfeeding and strengthen the breastfeeding-friendly environment in Mexico.
Some recent researches have shown the important role of hair cortisol as a retrospective biomarker of chronic stress. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between hair cortisol levels and sociodemographic and psychological variables, such as perceived stress levels and psychopathological symptoms on a Spanish population. The sample consisted of 347 healthy people, 230 women and 117 men, with an average age of 33.39 years (SD = 12.63). Hair cortisol levels were measured by obtaining a hair sample. In addition, a psychological assessment composed by: Analogic-Visual Stress Scale, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL–90–R) and the assessment of vital stressful events suffered, was carried out. The mean cortisol level was 108.93 pg/mg (SD = 66.43) in men, and 120.38 pg/mg (SD = 87.26) in women. The linear hierarchical regression showed that Analogic-Visual Stress Scale and perceived stress levels were related with higher hair cortisol levels (R2 = .032; t = 2.21; p = .029). Due to the relationship between daily stress levels, Analogic-Visual Stress Scale, anxiety sub-scale of SCL 90–R and perceived stress levels with hair cortisol levels, we conclude that there is a relation between perceived yourself stressed and the physiological levels.
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a sensory impairment, with a dramatic increase in its incidence, which is caused by genetic and environmental factors such as noise and ototoxic drugs. Recent studies correlated ARHL to elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) by folate deficiency, suggesting that reduction of Hcy levels by folate supplementation could potentially ameliorate ARHL.
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), a status that contributes to ARHL, may also arise from malfunction of Hcy remethylation by betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferases (BHMTs) and methionine synthase in the methionine cycle. The expression and/or activity of these enzymes may be altered by ototoxic drugs, including paracetamol (APAP).
To determine the effect of APAP in cochlear morphology and function of control and Bhmt-/- mice, and to analyze putative preventive effects of folic acid (FA) supplementation.
Materials and Methods
Two-month-old Bhmt-/- mice (n = 47), with greater dependence on folate metabolism for Hcy remethylation, and Bhmt + / + mice (n = 42) were fed control or FA supplemented diets for 30 days. The last day APAP (250 mg/kg) or placebo were injected intraperitoneally.
Hearing was evaluated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABR) at the beginning of the experiment and after treatments. Picrosirius red staining was used for evaluation of the cochlear lateral wall cytoarchitecture. Plasma and hepatic metabolite levels were determined by HPLC or on Spinlab 100® autoanalyzer.
Loss of Bhmt expression induced HHcy, but an impact on hearing acuity was not observed. Acute APAP administration did not induce ABR threshold shifts. However, following ototoxic treatment, changes of 5–17% in the areas of the stria vascularis and spiral ligament were detected between Bhmt-/- mice under different dietary treatments; cochlear structures of Bhmt-/- mice receiving APAP plus FA supplementation resemble those of the control group. APAP increases susceptibility to ototoxic damage in the presence of HHcy.
BHMT plays a central role in cochlear methionine metabolism. FA supplementation modulates Hcy levels, contributing to a proper remethylation status that prevents ARHL.
Semantically ambiguous and emotional words occur frequently in language, and the different meanings of ambiguous words can sometimes have different emotional loads. For example, the Spanish word heroína (heroin/heroine) can refer to a drug or to a woman who performs a heroic act. Because both ambiguity and emotionality affect word processing, there is a need for normative databases that include data on the emotionality of the different meanings of such words. Thus far, no bases of this type are available in Spanish. With this in mind, the current study will present meaning-dependent affective (valence) ratings for 252 Spanish ambiguous words. The analyses performed show that (a) among ambiguous words, those words with meanings that have distinct affective valence are quite frequent, (b) ambiguous words rated as neutral in isolation can have meanings of opposite valence (i.e., negative-positive or positive-negative), and (c) the valence estimated for ambiguous words in isolation is better explained by the weighted average of the valence of their meanings by dominance. A database of this kind can be useful both for basic research (e.g., relationship between emotion and language and ambiguity processing) and for applied research (e.g., cognitive and emotional biases in emotional disorders and second language learning).
We present the main results from the analysis of the Hα-[NII] emission lines with integral field spectroscopy observations gathered with MEGARA at the GTC of the nearby Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC7469. We obtained maps of the ionised gas in the inner 12.5 arcsec × 11.3 arcsec, at spatial scales of 0.62 arcsec, with an unprecedented spectral resolution (R ˜ 20 000). We characterized the kinematics and ionisation mechanism of the distinct kinematic components (Cazzoli et al.2019).
eHealth is a new approach for managing several health conditions, but up to now not so many interventions have shown their efficacy/effectiveness. The AUTAPP Project tries to add knowledge in eHealth interventions targeted to Mental Health disorders, specifically Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) management that requires complex interventions that integrate different psychosocial interventions. AUTAPP aims to develop an evidence based Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) using mobile technology for improving the decision process on psychosocial therapies in ASD. This study aimed to identify recommendations on which the algorithm of the CDSS will be developed.
A systematic review (November 2009-November 2018) was carried out to identify the existing scientific evidence published in relation to the effectiveness of: (i) early detection protocols; (ii) assessment tools; (iii) existing non-pharmacological therapies. Main databases were consulted (PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsychoInfo). Articles were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The quality of included publications and recommendations were assessed according to SIGN criteria.
A total number of 147 publications were included (477 identified): 96 for non-pharmacological therapies, 33 for assessment tools and eighteen for early detection. Regarding early detection and assessment, 12 recommendations were identified and six obtained the highest level (A), such as the convenience of multidisciplinary diagnosis teams and the usefulness of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for ASD confirmation. For non-pharmacological therapies, 16 recommendations were collected. Those with higher levels of recommendations were family, environmental and educational (three As and one B). Interventions with lower levels of recommendation (C) were interventions which exercise, computers and neurological approaches.
This systematic review allows both to identify gaps and opportunities in psychosocial interventions research and be the base for the CDSS algorithm. In the future professionals, careers and people diagnosed with ASD will validate the mobile CDSS.
Here we present a new site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): Galería de las Estatuas (GE), which provides new information about Mousterian occupations in the Iberian Plateau. The GE was an ancient entrance to the cave system, which is currently closed and sealed by a stalagmitic crust, below which a detritic sedimentary sequence of more than 2 m is found. This has been divided into five litostratigraphic units with a rich assemblage of faunal and lithic remains of clear Mousterian affinity. Radiocarbon dates provide minimum ages and suggest occupations older than 45 14C ka BP. The palynological analysis detected a landscape change to increased tree coverage, which suggests that the sequence recorded a warming episode. The macromammal assemblage is composed of both ungulates (mainly red deer and equids) and carnivores. Taphonomic analysis reveals both anthropic, and to a lesser extent, carnivore activities. The GE was occupied by Neanderthals and also sporadically by carnivores. This new site broadens the information available regarding different human occupations at the Sierra de Atapuerca, which emphasizes the importance of this site-complex for understanding human evolution in Western Europe.
New speleothem records from northeastern Iberian caves provide data to explore the climatic patterns during the Holocene. We present δ13C and Mg/Ca from three speleothems from two different caves located in the Iberian Range allowing replication of the climatic signal for several millennia. Through the integration of those stalagmites covering since the Holocene onset to 2 ka, the early Holocene (11.7–8.5 ka) appears as the wettest interval. A marked change towards aridity is observed during the middle Holocene (8.5–4.8 ka) and an increase of humidity afterwards (4.8–2 ka). This three-part pattern, contrasting with other Iberian sequences, seems to be associated with the different role that seasonality has played in the response of different proxies (or records) to changes in water availability. Interpreting our speleothem records as changes in winter-spring precipitation along the Holocene allows reconciling previous data on hydrological variability from the western Mediterranean borderlands.
In today's context of disseminating research internationally, the need to publish research papers in English-medium journals has become ever more pressing, not only for those scholars who seek to make their research visible to a wider audience and gain international recognition, but also for those who intend to obtain academic promotion and professional benefits, such as research funding and salary increment (Lillis & Curry, 2010; Moreno, 2010; Hanauer & Englander, 2011; Martin, Rey-Rocha, Burgess & Moreno, 2014). This is particularly the case in disciplinary areas such as the health sciences, where the number of scientific journals published in languages other than English has diminished dramatically over the last few years to almost total extinction.
Aside from geopolitical considerations related to the dominance of English (see, for example, Ammon, 2001, 2012; Ferguson, 2007), it is a fact that the writing up of a research paper generally involves difficulties, especially for inexperienced writers and users of English as an Additional Language [EAL]. In order to get their papers accepted, scholars have to demonstrate to the other members of their particular disciplinary communities, especially the editors and reviewers of international English language journals, that they have mastered the established rhetorical conventions which have been institutionalised in a specific research genre, such as the research article [RA]. In response to this situation, many English for Research Publication Purposes [ERPP] researchers and practitioners have put their energies into providing support to these scholars, including the analysis of the structural organisation of experimental RAs. Many of these studies have revealed that the typical macro-structure of experimental papers adheres to the IMRD [Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion] pattern, not only across disciplines but also across languages. Other authors, such as Cargill and O'connor (2013) and Burgess and Cargill (2013), have also noted a slight variation to this prevalent pattern in terms of the order in which these sections appear throughout the paper [IRDM], which consists in presenting the methods section at the end of the RA.
A high incidence of burnout has been reported in health professionals working in palliative care units. Our present study aims to determine whether there are differences in the secretion of salivary cortisol between palliative care unit health professionals with and without burnout, and to elucidate whether there is a relationship between burnout syndrome and perceived stress and psychopathological status in this population.
A total of 69 health professionals who met the inclusion criteria participated in our study, including physicians, nurses, and nursing assistants. Some 58 were women (M = 29.65 years, SD = 8.64) and 11 men (M = 35.67 years, SD = 11.90). The level of daily cortisol was registered in six measurements taken over the course of a workday. Burnout syndrome was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey (MBI–HSS), the level of perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, and psychopathological status was gauged using the SCL–90–R Symptoms Inventory.
There were statistically significant differences in secretion of cortisol in professionals with high scores on a single subscale of the MBI–HSS [F(3.5) = 2.48, p < 0.03]. This effect was observed 15–30 minutes after waking up (p < 0.01) and at bedtime (p < 0.06). Moreover, the professionals with burnout showed higher scores on the psychopathology and stress subscales than professionals without it.
Significance of results:
A higher score in any dimension of the burnout syndrome in palliative care unit health professionals seems to be related to several physiological and psychological parameters. These findings may be relevant for further development of our understanding of the relationship between levels of burnout and cortisol secretion in the health workers in these units.
The Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research (RCMAR) program was launched in 1997. Its goal is to build infrastructure to improve the well-being of older racial/ethnic minorities by identifying mechanisms to reduce health disparities.
Its primary objectives are to mentor faculty in research addressing the health of minority elders and to enhance the diversity of the workforce that conducts elder health research by prioritizing the mentorship of underrepresented diverse scholars.
Through 2015, 12 centers received RCMAR awards and provided pilot research funding and mentorship to 361 scholars, 70% of whom were from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. A large majority (85%) of RCMAR scholars from longstanding centers continue in academic research. Another 5% address aging and other health disparities through nonacademic research and leadership roles in public health agencies.
Longitudinal, team-based mentoring, cross-center scholar engagement, and community involvement in scholar development are important contributors to RCMAR’s success.