To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this paper, a coplanar waveguide-fed ultra-wideband-multiple-input and multiple-output (UWB-MIMO) antenna with a novel stub for isolation has been presented. The dimensions of the proposed antenna are 18 × 22 × 1.6 mm3. The proposed antenna is design on an FR4 substrate and simulated in CST studio. The |S11| of the presented MIMO antenna is less than −10 dB between 2.8 and 13 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 10.2 GHz. The envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) is less than 0.007 and diversity gain (DG) is greater than 9.97 dB. The proposed UWB-MIMO antenna is analyzed in terms of isolation, reflection coefficient, current distribution, ECC, DG, peak gain, multiplexing efficiency, and radiation pattern.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Through its interdisciplinary, tailored approach, the FLOW program could change the way that we approach promoting healthy lifestyle changes in the primary care field. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this project is to assess patient outcomes associated with the implementation of the Fitness, Lifestyle, and Optimal Wellness (FLOW) Program. The ultimate aim of this program is two-fold: increasing patient-reported wellness and improving objective health measurements. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The FLOW program consists of a multidisciplinary team of sports medicine physicians, nutritionists, fitness trainers, and clinical psychologists. Patients who choose to participate in the program undergo a comprehensive physician-guided assessment, including lifestyle and metabolic evaluation, biomarker profile, and body composition analysis. Based on the patient’s goals and results of evaluation, he/she is then connected with other members of the FLOW team to develop a comprehensive plan and offer resources for potential improvements in physical activity, nutrition, and/or behavior. The patient will undergo follow-up assessments and questionnaires at three and six months to track their objective measurements and reported progress. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The anticipated results of the FLOW program are an overall improvement in patient health and wellbeing. More specifically, we anticipate seeing increased levels of exercise from initial reported levels, as well as better nutrition habits. We expect to see improvements in follow-up body composition assessments, with gains in fat-free mass and decreased body fat, in addition to patient-reported improvements in behavioral health as measured by PHQ-9, GAD-2, and the Perceived Stress Scale. We will also assess reported sleep health with the hopes to see improvement in follow-up assessments. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The FLOW program is designed to address health inequities that disproportionately affect the Deep South. Through this program, we propose a new role of the primary care team in promoting healthy lifestyle habits and disease prevention through exercise, nutrition, and behavioral health services.
Depression is globally a crucial communal psychiatric disorder, which is more common in older adults. The situation is considerably worse among millions of older (forcibly displaced Myanmar nationals or FDMNs) Rohingya adults, and the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may exacerbate the already existing precarious situation. The present study investigated depressive symptoms and their associated factors in older adult Rohingya FDMNs in Cox Bazar, Bangladesh, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A total of 416 older adults aged 60 years and above residing in Rohingya camps situated in the South Eastern part of Bangladesh were interviewed using a 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in Bengali language. Chi-square test was performed to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms within different categories of a variable and a binary logistic regression model was performed to determine the factors associated with depressive symptoms.
More than 41% of Rohingya older adults had depressive symptoms (DS). Socio-demographic and economic factors such as living alone, dependency on family for living, poor memory, feelings of being left out, difficulty in getting medicine and routine medical care during COVID-19, perception that older adults are at highest risk of COVID-19 and pre-existing non-communicable chronic conditions were found to be significantly associated with developing DS. Higher DS was also evident among older female Rohingya FDMNs.
DS are highly prevalent in older Rohingya FDMNs during COVID-19. The findings of the present study call for immediate arrangement of mental health care services and highlight policy implications to ensure the well-being of older FDMNs.
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), self-help and guided self-help interventions have been found to be efficacious and cost effective for victims of trauma, but there are limited data from low- and middle-income countries on culturally adapted interventions for trauma.
To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of culturally adapted trauma-focused CBT-based guided self-help (CatCBT GSH) for female victims of domestic violence in Pakistan.
This randomized controlled trial (RCT) recruited 50 participants from shelter homes in Karachi and randomized them to two equal groups. The intervention group received GSH in nine sessions over 12 weeks. The control group was a waitlist control. The primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes included Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2 (WHO DAS 2). Assessments were carried out at baseline and at 12 weeks.
Out of 60 clients who met DSM-5 criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 56 (93.3%) agreed to participate in the study. Retention to the intervention group was excellent, with 92% (23/25) attending more than six sessions. Statistically significant differences were noted post-intervention in secondary outcomes in favour of the intervention.
A trial of CatCBT GSH was feasible and the intervention was acceptable to Pakistani women who had experienced domestic violence. Furthermore, it may be helpful in improving symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety and overall functioning in this population. The results provide a rationale for a larger, confirmatory RCT of CatCBT GSH.
Ductus arteriosus is an essential component of fetal circulation. Due to occurring changes in the cardiopulmonary system physiology after birth, ductus arteriosus closes. Patent ductus arteriosus can be closed by medical or invasive (percutaneous or surgical) treatment methods. Percutaneous or surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus can be performed for the cases that medical closure failed. Surgical treatment is often preferred method for closure of patent ductus arteriosus in the neonatal period. The most common surgical complications are pneumothorax, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, bleeding, and recanalisation. A very rare surgical complication is left pulmonary artery ligation that has been presented in a few cases in the literature. Echocardiography control should be performed in the early post-operative period, especially in patients with clinical suspicion. If reoperation is required, it should never be delayed. We report a newborn patient whose left pulmonary artery ligated accidentally during patent ductus arteriosus closure surgery and surgical correction of this complication at the early post-operative period.
The new coronavirus infection, which was first seen in China in late December, 2019 and eventually became a worldwide pandemic, poses a serious threat to public health. After a high spike in the number of new COVID-19 infection cases following the increase in overall daily death toll in Turkey, Turkish Ministry of Health has taken immediate precautions to postpone elective surgeries in order to reduce the burden to the healthcare system which might be challenged. Whereas different areas of medicine were able to suspend their operative procedures during this period, this was not completely possible in paediatric cardiovascular surgery due to the severity and urgency of congenital heart disease patients requiring operation. Based on the guideline that was published by the Turkish Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Association, in which the patients requiring surgical intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic period are ranked according to the priority, directions were given regarding the operations that hereby, be delayed, we report our experience in 29 cases retrospectively, regarding the pre-operative evaluation of these patients, makings of an emergency operation decision, and strategies taken about intra-operative and post-operative management and arrangements during the pandemic period. In this article, we present crucial precautions that were applied in paediatric cardiovascular surgery and extensive list of cases in order to deliver highest level of the patient safety and protection for the surgical team.
The increasing number of disasters and communities affected, coupled with the threats from climate change, has drawn not only national but also international attention to the risks of disasters and what can be done about them. It is important for communities and all global partners to be more prepared by taking action before disasters occur through disaster risk reduction, including the efforts of emergency preparedness, as well as through disaster response and recovery. To meet the emergency public health needs in any population, there is no other option than strengthening the primary health care system. For this goal, practitioners from various professions can work together and share an affinity in synthesizing knowledge and bridging gaps across functional areas. These include the disaster risk assessment and preparedness involving several disciplines for limiting human and material damage. This primary health care strategy with a multidisciplinary approach is the best possible method in developing improved approaches for disaster risk reduction and emergency preparedness by improving health emergency management plans and protocols.
Improved plasticity models require simultaneous experimental local strain and microstructural evolution data. Microscopy tools, such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), that can monitor transformation at the relevant length-scale, are often incompatible with digital image correlation (DIC) techniques required to determine local deformation. In this paper, the viability of forescatter detector (FSD) images as the basis for the DIC study is investigated. Standard FSD and an integrated EBSD/FSD approach (Pattern Region of Interest Analysis System: PRIAS™) are analyzed. Simultaneous strain and microstructure maps are obtained for tensile deformation of Q&P 1180 steel up to ~14% strain. Tests on an undeformed sample that is simply shifted indicate a standard deviation of error in strain of around 0.4% without additional complications from a deformed surface. The method resolves strain bands at ~2 μm spacing but does not provide significant sub-grain strain resolution. Similar resolution was obtained for mechanically polished and electropolished samples, despite electropolished surfaces presenting a smoother, simpler topography. While the resolution of the PRIAS approach depends upon the EBSD step size, the 80 nm step size used provides seemingly similar resolution as 8,000× (22.7 nm) FSD images. Surface feature evolution prevents DIC analysis across large strain steps (>6% strain), but restarting DIC, using an FSD reference image from an interim strain step, allows reasonable DIC across the stress–strain curve. Furthermore, the data are obtained easily and provide complementary information for EBSD analysis.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel betacoronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an unexpected outbreak affecting people of all ages. The first data showed that COVID-19 could cause severe pulmonary disease, cardiac injury, and death in adults, especially the elderly and those with concomitant diseases. Currently, it was demonstrated that severe COVID-19 may also develop in neonatal age, although rarely. Newborns with CHD are known to be at high risk for increased morbidity from viral lower respiratory tract infections because of underlying anatomical cardiac lesions. There are limited data on the implications of COVID-19 on patients with cardiovascular disease, especially for those with CHD. Herein, we aimed to summarise the COVID-19-specific perioperative management issues for newborns with CHD by combining available data from the perspectives of neonatology and paediatric cardiovascular surgery.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Flavorings differ between brands and tobacco products, potentially altering the sensory perceptions. This study aimed to examine discrepancies in flavor preference across various non-cigarette tobacco products among a national representative sample of US adult regular tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalence of flavor preference for various tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), traditional cigars, cigarillos/filtered cigars, hookah and snus/smokeless, was presented for 9,037 adult current and new former users of multiple flavored tobacco products. Within-subject flavor discrepancies were assessed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models considering the complex sampling design of the PATH study. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most regular users of a flavored tobacco products reported using one flavor category per product. Fruit flavors, followed by tobacco, were the most common flavor categories among ENDS (32% and 25%, respectively) and hookah users (44% and 36%, respectively). Tobacco flavor was the most common among regular users of traditional cigars (80%), cigarillos/filtered cigars (55%), and smokeless tobacco (79%). Polytobacco users of ENDS and traditional cigars had the largest discrepancy, where about 68-76%% used different flavor categories when switching products. Conversely, polytobacco users of traditional cigars and cigarillos/filtered cigars had the lowest discrepancy (23-25%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Many consumers of multiple tobacco products had different flavor preferences when switching between products. In the event of a partial or full flavor ban for ENDS, these findings raise questions about consumer loyalty to a particular tobacco product or a particular flavor category. Conflict of Interest Description: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Wheezing has been shown to be associated with use of cigarettes, and more recently, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study assessed the association of poly use of tobacco products with wheezing among a national representative sample of US adult current tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalences of self-reported wheezing and related respiratory symptoms for non-users compared to users of cigarettes, ENDS, cigars, and any combination of these products (poly use of tobacco products) were presented for 28,082 adults. The cross-sectional association of tobacco use with self-reported wheezing and other related respiratory symptoms was assessed using weighted multivariable and ordinal logistic regression with consideration of complex sampling design. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most adults who reported on wheezing symptoms did not currently use cigarettes, ENDS or cigars (79%), 15% used cigarettes, 3% used a combination of cigarettes, ENDS and cigars, 1% used ENDS, and 1% used cigars. Significantly higher odds of ever had wheezing or whistling in chest at any time in the past was observed among current cigarette (adjusted OR: 2.62, 95%CI: 2.35, 2.91), ENDS (1.49, 95%CI: 1.14, 1.95), and poly users (2.67, 95%CI: 2.26, 3.16) compared to non-users. No differences were seen for cigar use. Polytobacco use was associated with a higher odds of ever wheezing when compared to ENDS (1.61, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.17) and cigar use (2.87, 95%CI: 1.93, 4.26), but not cigarettes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wheezing is associated with the use of cigarettes, ENDS, or any combination of cigarette, ENDS and cigars likely due to the inhalation of noxious chemicals and gases found in the smoke of cigarettes and ENDS that are likely to increase the odds of experiencing wheezing. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
Social anxiety is common among adolescents in Pakistan and is associated with low self-esteem. Among the recommended treatments, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective, and self-help approaches are encouraged.
To determine the effectiveness of culturally adapted CBT-based guided self-help (CACBT-GSH) intervention, using a manual ‘Khushi aur Khatoon’, for treating social anxiety when added to treatment as usual (TAU) compared with TAU only.
A total of 76 adolescents with social anxiety aged 13–16 years from six schools in Multan, Pakistan were recruited into this randomized controlled trial. Participants were divided into intervention and control groups in a 1:1 ratio. Social anxiety, self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation were assessed through the Liebowtiz Social Anxiety Scale for children and adolescents, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, respectively, at baseline and at the end of the study. Guided self-help using culturally adapted CBT (CACBT)-based self-help manual (eight sessions, one session per week) was provided to the intervention group. The effect of the CACBT-GSH intervention was analysed with ANCOVA.
There was a statistically significant difference between the intervention and the control groups in favour of intervention. Participants in the intervention group showed reduced symptoms of social anxiety (p < .001), fear of negative evaluation (p < .001) and enhanced self-esteem (p < .001).
The study demonstrated the effectiveness of CACBT-based guided self-help intervention in treating social anxiety and addressing the symptoms associated with it.
Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is very rare in children. Although surgery is conventional treatment, recently, percutaneous closure of pseudoaneurysms has been described. Here, we present the first case where a patient developed left ventricular pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous ventricular septal defect device closure and was treated by a second percutaneous method.
Studies have shown higher rate of various psychiatric disorders among individuals with substance abuse / dependence. There is little data in developing countries, such as Pakistan, on prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in this population and impact on treatment.
To assess the psychiatric co-morbidity among individuals with substance dependence and to determine its demographic associations in patients with substance dependence in Pakistan.
This was a descriptive study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Participants were 588 individuals with substance dependence admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan, mainly in male inpatient substance dependence unit. The patients were assessed for psychiatric co-morbidity using DSM IV criteria. Informed consent was obtained. The study was approved by the Institutional Research Committee. The results were obtained by using chi square test on SPSS 17.
Out of 588, 200 patients (34%) were found co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders along with substance dependence. Reason of first substance use and history of previous substance dependence were observed to be significantly associated with co-morbid psychiatric disorders, x2 (48, n = 549) = 112.396, p < 0.01 and x2 (18, n = 588) = 29.66, p = 0.041 respectively.
1. There was high rate of psychiatric co-morbidity among individuals with substance dependence in this sample.
2. Depression, personality disorders and anxiety disorders were the major co-morbid diagnosis among this population.
This article focuses on children taken by Istanbulite families for upbringing and employment in the Ottoman capital during the 1800–1900 period. It suggests that domestic child labor which was shaped by the concept of ‘charity’ and economic interests during the first half of the nineteenth century progressively turned into wage labor during the second half of the century. The study claims that the nineteenth century witnessed a transformation of labor relations in the domestic service market, implying the transition from reciprocal to commodified labor. The labor of children employed in domestic services underwent a monetization process throughout the nineteenth century. Parallel to this monetization, the status of children under foster care or in domestic service came to be determined by standardized legal contracts.
The plasma parameters of laser-ablated Zirconium (Zr) using a Langmuir probe technique have been investigated by employing a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 6 ns) at various irradiances ranging from 8.6 to 15.5 GW/cm2. All the measurements have been performed under an ultra-high vacuum condition while keeping the probe at a fixed distance of 4 mm from the target. By varying the biasing voltages from 1 to 75 V, the corresponding values of electric currents are measured by the probe on the oscilloscope. Laser-induced Zr plasma parameters such as electron temperature, electron number density, plasma potential, Debye length, and thermal velocity have been evaluated from I–V characteristic curves of Langmuir probe data. It is found that both the electron temperature and thermal velocity of Zr plasma reveal an increasing trend from 18 to 41 eV and 2.8 × 108 to 4.3 × 108 cm/s, respectively, with increasing laser irradiance which is attributed to more energy deposition and enhanced ablation rate. However, the electron number density of Zr plasma exhibits a non-significant increase from 6.5 × 1014 to 6.7 × 1014 cm−3 with increasing irradiance from 8.6 to 10.9 GW/cm2. A further increase in irradiance from 12 to 15.5 GW/cm2 causes a reduction in the number density of Zr plasma from 6.1 × 1014 to 5.6 × 1014 cm−3 which is attributed to the formation of thick sheath, ambipolar electric field, and laser-supported detonation waves (Shock front). Scanning electron microscope analysis has been performed to reveal the surface morphology of irradiated Zr. It reveals the formation of cracks, ridges, cones, and grains. It was observed at high irradiances the ridges are vanished, whereas cones and cracks are dominant features. By controlling plasma parameters, surface structuring of materials can be controlled, which has a vast range of applications in the industry and medicine.
To describe activities and outcomes of a cross-team capacity building strategy that took place over a five-year funding period within the broader context of 12 community-based primary health care (CBPHC) teams.
In 2013, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research funded 12 CBPHC Teams (12-Teams) to conduct innovative cross-jurisdictional research to improve the delivery of high-quality CBPHC to Canadians. This signature initiative also aimed to enhance CBPHC research capacity among an interdisciplinary group of trainees, facilitated by a collaboration between a capacity building committee led by senior researchers and a trainee-led working group.
After the committee and working group were established, capacity building activities were organized based on needs and interests identified by trainees of the CBPHC Teams. This paper presents a summary of the activities accomplished, as well as the outcomes reported through an online semistructured survey completed by the trainees toward the end of the five-year funding period. This survey was designed to capture the capacity building and mentorship activities that trainees either had experienced or would like to experience in the future. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted based on survey responses, and these findings were compared with the existing core competencies in the literature.
Since 2013, nine webinars and three online workshops were hosted by trainees and senior researchers, respectively. Many of the CBPHC Teams provided exposure for trainees to innovative methods, CBPHC content, and showcased trainee research. A total of 27 trainees from 10 of the 12-Teams responded to the survey (41.5%). Trainees identified key areas of benefit from their involvement in this initiative: skills training, networking opportunities, and academic productivity. Trainees identified gaps in research and professional skill development, indicating areas for further improvement in capacity building programs, particularly for trainees to play a more active role in their education and preparation.
This paper shows that money is a relevant macroeconomic indicator for the description of US monetary policy with simple rules. Empirical analysis based on novel real-time data reveals the economically and statistically significant effect of money on the federal funds rate during the Volcker–Greenspan era, highlighting an interest rate rule that better explains historical policy. The findings suggest that the bias against including money in mainstream macroeconomic models may be due to relying on an incorrect measure of money. A gradual deviation from this rule explains loose monetary policy prior to the Great Recession. Including money aggregates in rule-based policy presents a suitable framework to evaluate and guide Federal Reserve policy.