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Cardiac involvement associated with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children has been extensively reported, but the prevalence of cardiac involvement in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the absence of inflammatory syndrome has not been well described. In this retrospective, single centre, cohort study, we describe the cardiac involvement found in this population and report on outcomes of patients with and without elevated cardiac biomarkers. Those with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children, cardiomyopathy, or complex CHD were excluded. Inclusion criteriaz were met by 80 patients during the initial peak of the pandemic at our institution. High-sensitivity troponin T and/or N-terminal pro-brain type natriuretic peptide were measured in 27/80 (34%) patients and abnormalities were present in 5/27 (19%), all of whom had underlying comorbidities. Advanced respiratory support was required in all patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were identified in 14/38 (37%) studies. Echocardiograms were performed on 7/80 patients, and none demonstrated left ventricular dysfunction. Larger studies to determine the true extent of cardiac involvement in children with COVID-19 would be useful to guide recommendations for standard workup and management.
As the United States’ original epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic and one of the leading national paediatric heart failure/cardiomyopathy programs, we describe our experience with the spectrum of COVID-19 in the paediatric heart failure population.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Agreement between echocardiography and right heart catheterisation-derived right ventricular systolic pressure is modest in the adult heart failure population, but is unknown in the paediatric cardiomyopathy population.
All patients at a single centre from 2001 to 2012 with a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy who underwent echocardiography and catheterisation within 30 days were included in this study. The correlation between tricuspid regurgitation gradient and catheterisation-derived right ventricular systolic pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure was determined. Agreement between echocardiography and catheterisation-derived right ventricular systolic pressure was assessed using Bland–Altman plots. Analysis was repeated for patients who underwent both procedures within 7 days. Haemodynamic data from those with poor agreement and good agreement between echocardiography and catheterisation were compared.
A total of 37 patients who underwent 48 catheterisation procedures were included in our study. The median age was 11.8 (0.1–20.6 years) with 22 males (58% total). There was a modest correlation (r=0.65) between echocardiography and catheterisation-derived right ventricular systolic pressure, but agreement was poor. Agreement between tricuspid regurgitation gradient and right ventricular systolic pressure showed wide 95% limits of agreement. There was a modest correlation between the tricuspid regurgitation gradient and mean pulmonary artery pressure (r=0.6). Shorter time interval between the two studies did not improve agreement. Those with poor agreement between echocardiography and catheterisation had higher right heart pressures, but this difference became insignificant after accounting for right atrial pressure.
Transthoracic echocardiography estimation of right ventricular systolic pressure shows modest correlation with right heart pressures, but has limited agreement and may underestimate the degree of pulmonary hypertension in paediatric cardiomyopathy patients.
The prevalence of right ventricular dysfunction in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is incompletely studied in children. Furthermore, right ventricular function may signal worse outcomes. We evaluated recently published right ventricular function echocardiographic indices in identifying dysfunction in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and the impact of right ventricular dysfunction on long-term prognosis.
A retrospective database review of right ventricular function indices in 30 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was compared with 60 age- and sex-matched controls from January, 2001 until December, 2010. Right ventricular function was assessed by Doppler tissue peak systolic S′, early and late diastolic E′ and A′ waves and isovolumic acceleration at the tricuspid valve annulus; pulsed wave Doppler tricuspid valve inflow E and A waves; right ventricular myocardial performance index; tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; right ventricular fractional area change.
Right ventricular systolic and diastolic function in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was significantly impaired. All measured indices except for isovolumic acceleration and fractional area change were significantly reduced, with a p-value less than 0.05. There was no right ventricular index predictive of death or transplantation. Patients with poor outcome were significantly more likely to need inotropic support (p-value equal to 0.018), be placed on a ventricular assist device (p equal to 0.005), and have a worse left ventricular ejection fraction z-score (p-value equal to 0.002).
Right ventricular dysfunction is under-recognised in children presenting with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The need for clinical circulatory support and left ventricular ejection fraction z-score less than minus 8 were primary determinants of outcome, independent of the degree of derangement in right ventricular function.
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