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Psychotic disorders exhibit a complex aetiology that combines genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, obstetric complications (OCs) have been widely studied as risk factors, but it is not yet well understood how OCs relate to the heterogeneous presentations of psychotic disorders. We assessed the clinical phenotypes of individuals with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) in relation to the presence of OCs.
Two-hundred seventy-seven patients with an FEP were assessed for OCs using the Lewis–Murray scale, with data stratified into three subscales depending on the timing and the characteristics of the obstetric event, namely: complications of pregnancy, abnormal foetal growth and development and difficulties in delivery. We also considered other two groups: any complications during the pregnancy period and all OCs taken altogether. Patients were clinically evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia.
Total OCs and difficulties in delivery were related to more severe psychopathology, and this remained significant after co-varying for age, sex, traumatic experiences, antipsychotic dosage and cannabis use.
Our results highlight the relevance of OCs for the clinical presentation of psychosis. Describing the timing of the OCs is essential in understanding the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation.
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