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Employment is a crucial part of adult life and is associated with improved health outcomes. However, despite the several advantages of hiring individuals with intellectual and development disabilities (IDD), the employment rate for this population is still low. An employment conference was organised to inform participants of successful employment initiatives, and to increase our understanding of local employer challenges regarding the recruitment, hire, and retention of employees with IDD. Descriptive statistics were used to assess common methods of recruitment, potential helpful hiring strategies, and recruitment, hire, and retention challenges, and an ordinal logistic regression was conducted to examine whether responses differed based on demographic variables. The conference was evaluated by gathering data on several facets of participant satisfaction. Findings brought to light several key challenges that can be used to create more targeted interventions and supports. Responses to several questions differed by demographics (such as company size and industry type), which represent important areas for future research to examine. Participants reported being satisfied with the conference, and many indicated that their attitudes had changed towards disability and that they were more likely to employ individuals with IDD in the future. Systematically addressing barriers to employment is essential in order to reduce the employment gap and improve outcomes for individuals with IDD. Ultimately, conferences that aim to educate participants about successful programs and strategies represent a promising practice that can increase employment opportunities for individuals with IDD.
Lead carbonates were used as cosmetic and pigment since Antiquity. The pigment, known as lead white, was generally composed of cerussite and hydrocerussite. Unlike most ancient pigments, lead white was obtained by a synthetic route involving metallic lead, vinegar and organic matter. Fermentation of organic matter produces heat and CO2 emission, leading to the formation of carbonates. As lead white is formed by trapping CO2, radiocarbon (14C) dating can thus be considered. We have developed a protocol to prepare lead white. We selected modern pigments for the experiment implementation and ancient cosmetic and paintings for dating. After characterization of the samples by XRD, thermal decomposition of cerussite at various temperatures was explored in order to select the appropriate conditions for painting samples. CO2 extraction yield, SEM and XPS were used to characterize the process. Thermal decomposition at 400°C was successfully applied to mixtures of lead white with other paint components (oil as binder, calcite as filler/extender) and to historical samples. We obtained radiocarbon measurements in agreement with the expected dates, demonstrating that thermal decomposition at 400°C is efficient for a selective decomposition of lead white and that paintings can be directly 14C-dated by dating lead white pigment.
To summarize ways that networks of community-based organizations (CBO), in partnership with public health departments, contribute to community recovery from disaster.
The study was conducted using an online survey administered one and 2 years after Hurricane Sandy to the partnership networks of 369 CBO and the New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The survey assessed the structure and durability of networks, how they were influenced by storm damage, and whether more connected networks were associated with better recovery outcomes.
During response and recovery, CBOs provide an array of critical public health services often outside their usual scope. New CBO partnerships were formed to support recovery, particularly in severely impacted areas. CBOs that were more connected to other CBOs and were part of a long-term recovery committee reported greater impacts on the community; however, a partnership with the local health department was not associated with recovery impacts.
CBO partners are flexible in their scope of services, and CBO partnerships often emerge in areas with the greatest storm damage, and subsequently the greatest community needs. National policies will advance if they account for the dynamic and emergent nature of these partnerships and their contributions, and clarify the role of government partners. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:635–643)
Factors associated with depression are usually identified from cross-sectional studies.
We explore the relative roles of onset and recovery in determining these associations.
Hazard ratios for onset and recovery were estimated for 39 risk factors from a cohort study of 10 045 general practice attendees whose depression status was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months.
Risk factors have a stronger relative effect on the rate of onset than recovery. The strongest risk factors for both onset and maintenance of depression tend to be time-dependent. With the exception of female gender the strength of a risk factor's effect on onset is highly predictive of its impact on recovery.
Preventive measures will achieve a greater reduction in the prevalence of depression than measures designed to eliminate risk factors post onset. The strength of time-dependent risk factors suggests that it is more productive to focus on proximal rather than distal factors.
Electronic devices capable of performing in extreme mechanical conditions such as stretching, bending, or twisting will improve biomedical and wearable systems. The required capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional building geometries, because of structural rigidity and lack of mechanical stretchability. In this article, a zigzag-patterned structure representing a stretchable interconnect is presented as a promising type of building block. In situ experimental observations on the deformed interconnect are correlated with numerical analysis, providing an understanding of the deformation and failure mechanisms. The experimental results demonstrate that the zigzag-patterned interconnect enables stretchability up to 60% without rupture. This stretchability is accommodated by in-plane rotation of arms and out-of-plane deformation of crests. Numerical analysis shows that the dominating failure cause is interfacial in-plane shear stress. The plastic strain concentration at the arms close to the crests, obtained by numerical simulation, agrees well with the failure location observed in the experiment.
Large area deformable macroelectronics, such as flexible display, smart bandage, electronic textile, have to withstand various modes of deformation (e.g., bending, twisting and stretching). Such electronic systems usually are composed of inorganic parts with limited deformability, and organic parts which can sustain large deformations. Because of the elastic nature of elastomers, these materials are often used as substrates for the specific applications mentioned above. In order to fulfill the demand of deformability, many concepts have been developed. One of these concepts consists of small rigid islands with active devices or individual thin chips which are interconnected by thin metal conductor lines. All rigid components are placed on the small islands to ensure that the strains acting on these brittle components are small when the structure is subjected to a large deformation. Since the thin conductor lines have to withstand all these deformations, a proper structural design is necessary to avoid losing structural integrity and electrical functionality during this deformation.
Several technologies have been proposed in recent years, such as in-plane patterned metal conductors, out-of-plane wrinkling metal films, and conductive polymers or liquid alloys. It has been reported that by depositing a thin metal strip with a thickness of few nanometers on an elastomeric substrate, the elongation of the metal can go up to 50% while the strip remains conductive. Upon large strain, the elastic deformation of the elastomeric substrate causes local debondings of the metal film coevolving with strain localizations. Thanks to this coevolved process, even a �straight� line, deposited on a polymer substrate, is stretchable. However, a drawback of this unique characteristic is that the resistance of the thin metal film changes with elongation, which might be a disadvantage for certain applications. Another approach for having a stable resistance is to use bulk metal conductors. Compared to a freestanding bulk metal straight line which ruptures at strains of 1%˜2%, an in-plane patterned horseshoe metal conductor can be stretched up to 100% with a stable resistance before electrical failure.
This paper demonstrates a novel in-plane patterned zigzag structure, with resistance independent of elongation before metal rupture, which can be stretched beyond 40%. The advantage compared to the horseshoe is that due to the geometrical design, the in-plane zigzag structural interconnects can be applied in a fine pitch microelectronic device. The experimental observations by both scanning electron microscopy micrographs and resistance measurements show that there is no significant local necking in either the transverse or the thickness direction at the metal breakdown area. Micrographs and simulation results show that a debonding occurs due to the local twisting of a metal interconnect, out-of-plane peeling and strain localized at the crest of a zigzag structure.
There is evidence that the prevalence of common mental disorders varies
To compare prevalence of common mental disorders in general practice
attendees in six European countries.
Unselected attendees to general practices in the UK, Spain, Portugal,
Slovenia, Estonia and The Netherlands were assessed for major depression,
panic syndrome and other anxiety syndrome. Prevalence of DSM–IV major
depression, other anxiety syndrome and panic syndrome was compared
between the UK and other countries after taking account of differences in
demographic factors and practice consultation rates.
Prevalence was estimated in 2344 men and 4865 women. The highest
prevalence for all disorders occurred in the UK and Spain, and lowest in
Slovenia and The Netherlands. Men aged 30–50 and women aged 18–30 had the
highest prevalence of major depression; men aged 40–60 had the highest
prevalence of anxiety, and men and women aged 40–50 had the highest
prevalence of panic syndrome. Demographic factors accounted for the
variance between the UK and Spain but otherwise had little impact on the
significance of observed country differences.
These results add to the evidence for real differences between European
countries in prevalence of psychological disorders and show that the
burden of care on general practitioners varies markedly between
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