To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Limited data exist on how trainees in paediatric cardiology are assessed among countries affiliated with the Association of European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology.
A structured and approved questionnaire was circulated to educationalists/trainers in 95 Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology training centres.
Trainers from 46 centres responded with complete data in 41 centres. Instructional design included bedside teaching (41/41), didactic teaching (38/41), problem-based learning (28/41), cardiac catheterisation calculations (34/41), journal club (31/41), fellows presenting in the multidisciplinary meeting (41/41), fellows reporting on echocardiograms (34/41), clinical simulation (17/41), echocardiography simulation (10/41), and catheterisation simulation (3/41). Assessment included case-based discussion (n = 27), mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) (n = 12), directly observed procedures (n = 12), oral examination (n = 16), long cases (n = 11), written essay questions (n = 6), multiple choice questions (n = 5), and objective structured clinical examination (n = 2). Entrustable professional activities were utilised in 10 (24%) centres. Feedback was summative only in 17/41 (41%) centres, formative only in 12/41 (29%) centres and a combination of formative and summative feedback in 10/41 (24%) centres. Written feedback was provided in 10/41 (24%) centres. Verbal feedback was most common in 37/41 (90 %) centres.
There is a marked variation in instructional design and assessment across European paediatric cardiac centres. A wide mix of assessment tools are used. Feedback is provided by the majority of centres, mostly verbal summative feedback. Adopting a programmatic assessment focusing on competency/capability using multiple assessment tools with regular formative multisource feedback may promote assessment for learning of paediatric cardiology trainees.
Limited data exist on training of European paediatric and adult congenital cardiologists.
A structured and approved questionnaire was circulated to national delegates of Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology in 33 European countries.
Delegates from 30 countries (91%) responded. Paediatric cardiology was not recognised as a distinct speciality by the respective ministry of Health in seven countries (23%). Twenty countries (67%) have formally accredited paediatric cardiology training programmes, seven (23%) have substantial informal (not accredited or certified) training, and three (10%) have very limited or no programme. Twenty-two countries have a curriculum. Twelve countries have a national training director. There was one paediatric cardiology centre per 2.66 million population (range 0.87–9.64 million), one cardiac surgical centre per 4.73 million population (range 1.63–10.72 million), and one training centre per 4.29 million population (range 1.63–10.72 million population). The median number of paediatric cardiology fellows per training programme was 4 (range 1–17), and duration of training was 3 years (range 2–5 years). An exit examination in paediatric cardiology was conducted in 16 countries (53%) and certification provided by 20 countries (67%). Paediatric cardiologist number is affected by gross domestic product (R2 = 0.41).
Training varies markedly across European countries. Although formal fellowship programmes exist in many countries, several countries have informal training or no training. Only a minority of countries provide both exit examination and certification. Harmonisation of training and standardisation of exit examination and certification could reduce variation in training thereby promoting high-quality care by European congenital cardiologists.
A 17-year-old boy with a history of dyspnea attacks and chest pain was referred to our paediatric cardiology department. Electrocardiogram at presentation showed T-wave inversion in the inferior leads. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging revealed the rare diagnosis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement, missed by echocardiography.
The recommendations of the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology for basic training in paediatric and congenital cardiology required to be recognised as a paediatric cardiologist by the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology are described below. Those wishing to achieve more advanced training in particular areas of paediatric cardiology should consult the training recommendations of the different Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology Working Groups available on the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology website (www.aepc.org) and the respective publications 1–6. The development of training requirements is the responsibility of the Educational Committee and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology Council in collaboration with the Working Groups of the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology. Trainees should be exposed to all aspects of general paediatric and congenital cardiology from fetal life to adolescence and adulthood. Centres performing generalised and specialised work in paediatric and congenital cardiology should be committed to deliver postgraduate training. At each training institute, trainers should be appointed to supervise and act as mentors to the trainees. Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology will provide basic teaching courses to supplement the training process.
A 14 -year-old boy presented with chest pain and breathlessness. Echocardiography showed a large pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade features and suspicion of cardiac mass. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance demonstrated a large, well-defined pericardial mass, suggesting atypical large coronary fistula with pericardial haematoma or primary cardiac/pericardial tumour such as angiosarcoma. Histology confirmed a mixed-type vascular malformation. Sirolimus therapy was initiated.
We reviewed the recent literature for echocardiographic assessment of mitral valve abnormalities in children. A literature search was performed within the National Library of Medicine using the keywords “mitral regurgitation and/or stenosis, children.” The search was refined by adding the keywords “echocardiographic definition, classification, and evaluation.” Thirty-one studies were finally included. Significant advances in echocardiographic imaging of mitral valve defects, mainly due to the implementation of three-dimensional technology, contribute to a better understanding of the underlying anatomy. However, heterogeneity between classification systems of mitral valve disease severity is a serious problem. For regurgitant lesions, there is only very limited evidence from small studies that support the adoption of quantitative/semi-quantitative indexes commonly employed in adults. Despite the lack of evidence base, qualitative evaluation of regurgitation severity is often employed. For stenotic lesions, no clear categorisation based on trans-valvular echocardiography-derived “gradients” has been consistently applied to define mild, moderate, or severe obstruction across different paediatric age ranges. Quantitative parameters such as valve area have also been poorly validated in children. Adult recommendations are frequently applied without validation for the paediatric age. In conclusion, significant advances in the anatomical evaluation of mitral valve diseases have been made, thanks to three-dimensional echocardiography; however, limitations remain in the quantitative/semi-quantitative estimation of disease severity, both with respect to valvular regurgitation and stenosis. Because adult echocardiographic recommendations should not be simply translated to the paediatric age, more specific paediatric guidelines and standards for the assessment of mitral valve diseases are needed.
Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum may be complicated by coronary aneurysms and myocardial ischaemia. We report a case of an acquired postoperative right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm with communication to the left ventricular outflow tract. Multimodality imaging helped in the characterisation of this structural abnormality, which led to treatment modification of the patient.
Williams syndrome is a well-recognised congenital disorder characterised by cardiovascular, connective tissue, and central nervous system abnormalities. Coronary artery abnormalities are seen in patients with supravalvar aortic stenosis, but end-stage ischaemic heart disease is rare. We report a case of end-stage ischaemic heart disease due to severe coronary arterial stenosis, highlighting how cardiovascular MRI contributed to the management.
The left ventricle in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome may influence right ventricular function and outcome. We aimed to investigate differences in right ventricular deformation and intraventricular dyssynchrony between hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients with different anatomical subtypes and left ventricle sizes after Fontan surgery using two-dimensional speckle tracking.
Patients and methods
We examined 29 hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients aged 5.4 plus or minus 2.8 years after Fontan surgery and compared 15 patients with mitral and aortic atresia with the remaining 14 patients with other anatomic subtypes. We used two-dimensional speckle tracking to measure the global and regional systolic longitudinal strain and strain rate as well as intraventricular dyssynchrony.
Global strain (−19.5, 2.8% versus −17.4, 3.9%) and global strain rate (−1.0, 0.2 per second versus −0.9, 0.3 per second) were not different between groups. The mitral and aortic atresia group had higher strain in the basal septal (−13.0, 5.0% versus −3.9, 9.3%, p = 0.003) and mid-septal (−19.4, 4.7% versus −13.2, 6.5%, p = 0.009) segments, and higher strain rates in the mid-septal segment (−1.14, 0.3 per second versus −0.95, 0.4 per second, p = 0.047), smaller left ventricle area (0.18, 0.41 square centimetre versus 2.83, 2.07 square centimetre, p = 0.0001), and shorter wall-to-wall delay (38, 29 milliseconds versus 81, 57 milliseconds, p = 0.02).
Significant differences in regional deformation and intraventricular dyssynchrony exist between the mitral and aortic atresia subtype with small left ventricles and the other anatomic subtypes with larger left ventricles after Fontan surgery.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.