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Bypass transition in flow over a flat plate triggered by a pair of dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuators mounted on the plate surface and aligned in the streamwise direction is investigated. A four-species plasma–fluid model is used to model the electrohydrodynamic force generated by the plasma actuation. A pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices is created downstream of the actuators, leading to the formation of a high-speed streak in the centre and two low-speed streaks on each side. As the length of actuators increases, more momentum is added to the boundary layer and eventually a turbulent wedge is generated at an almost fixed location. With large spanwise distance between the actuators (wide layout), direct numerical simulations indicate that the low-speed streaks on both sides lose secondary stability via an inclined varicose-like mode simultaneously, leaving a symmetric perturbation pattern with respect to the centre of the actuators. Further downstream, the perturbations are tilted by the mean shear of the high- and low-speed streaks and consequently a ‘W’-shaped pattern is observed. When the pair of plasma actuators is placed closer (narrow layout) in the spanwise direction, the mean shear in the centre becomes stronger and secondary instability first occurs on the high-speed streak with an asymmetric pattern. Inclined varicose-like and sinuous-like instabilities coexist in the following breakdown of the negative streaks on the side and the perturbations remain asymmetric with respect to the centre. Here the tilting of disturbances is dominated by the mean shear in the centre and the perturbations display a ‘V’ shape. Linear analysis techniques, including biglobal stability and transient growth, are performed to further examine the fluid physics; the aforementioned phenomena at narrow and wide layouts, such as the secondary instabilities, the ‘V’ and ‘W’ shapes, and the symmetric and asymmetric breakdown, are all observed.
This paper proposes an intelligent cooperative collision avoidance approach combining the enhanced potential field (EPF) with a fuzzy inference system (FIS) to resolve local minima and goal non-reachable with obstacles nearby issues and provide a near-optimal collision-free trajectory. A genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize parameters of membership function and rule base of the FISs. This work uses a single scenario containing all issues and interactions among unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for training. For validating the performance, two scenarios containing obstacles with different shapes and several UAVs in small airspace are considered. Multiple simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms the conventional EPF approach statistically.
Accurate prognostication is important for patients and their families to prepare for the end of life. Objective Prognostic Score (OPS) is an easy-to-use tool that does not require the clinicians’ prediction of survival (CPS), whereas Palliative Prognostic Score (PaP) needs CPS. Thus, inexperienced clinicians may hesitate to use PaP. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of OPS compared with PaP in inpatients in palliative care units (PCUs) in three East Asian countries.
This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-cultural, multicenter cohort study. We enrolled inpatients with far-advanced cancer in PCUs in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan from 2017 to 2018. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve to compare the accuracy of OPS and PaP.
A total of 1,628 inpatients in 33 PCUs in Japan and Korea were analyzed. OPS and PaP were calculated in 71.7% of the Japanese patients and 80.0% of the Korean patients. In Taiwan, PaP was calculated for 81.6% of the patients. The AUROC for 3-week survival was 0.74 for OPS in Japan, 0.68 for OPS in Korea, 0.80 for PaP in Japan, and 0.73 for PaP in Korea. The AUROC for 30-day survival was 0.70 for OPS in Japan, 0.71 for OPS in Korea, 0.79 for PaP in Japan, and 0.74 for PaP in Korea.
Significance of results
Both OPS and PaP showed good performance in Japan and Korea. Compared with PaP, OPS could be more useful for inexperienced physicians who hesitate to estimate CPS.
This study aimed to determine the effect of donor-transmitted atherosclerosis on the late aggravation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy in paediatric heart recipients aged ≥7 years.
In total, 48 patients were included and 23 had donor-transmitted atherosclerosis (baseline maximal intimal thickness of >0.5 mm on intravascular ultrasonography). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for donor-transmitted atherosclerosis. Rates of survival free from the late aggravation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (new or worsening cardiac allograft vasculopathy on following angiograms, starting 1 year after transplantation) in each patient group were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. The effect of the results of intravascular ultrasonography at 1 year after transplantation on the late aggravation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, correcting for possible covariates including donor-transmitted atherosclerosis, was examined using the Cox proportional hazards model.
The mean follow-up duration after transplantation was 5.97 ± 3.58 years. The log-rank test showed that patients with donor-transmitted atherosclerosis had worse survival outcomes than those without (p = 0.008). Per the multivariate model considering the difference of maximal intimal thickness between baseline and 1 year following transplantation (hazard ratio, 22.985; 95% confidence interval, 1.948–271.250; p = 0.013), donor-transmitted atherosclerosis was a significant covariate (hazard ratio, 4.013; 95% confidence interval, 1.047–15.376; p = 0.043).
Paediatric heart transplantation recipients with donor-transmitted atherosclerosis aged ≥7 years had worse late cardiac allograft vasculopathy aggravation-free survival outcomes.
Two aphid-transmitted RNA viruses, broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), are the most prevalent viruses in Korean pepper fields and cause chronic damage in pepper production. In this study, we employed a screening system for pathotype-specific resistance of pepper germplasm to BBWV2 and CMV by utilizing infectious cDNA clones of different pathotypes of the viruses (two BBWV2 strains and three CMV strains). We first examined pathogenic characteristics of the BBWV2 and CMV strains in various plant species and their phylogenetic positions in the virus population structures. We then screened 34 commercial pepper cultivars and seven accessions for resistance. While 21 pepper cultivars were resistant to CMV Fny strain, only two cultivars were resistant to CMV P1 strain. We also found only one cultivar partially resistant to BBWV2 RP1 strain. However, all tested commercial pepper cultivars were susceptible to the resistance-breaking CMV strain GTN (CMV-GTN) and BBWV2 severe strain PAP1 (BBWV2-PAP1), suggesting that breeding new cultivars resistant to these virus strains is necessary. Fortunately, we identified several pepper accessions that were resistant or partially resistant to CMV-GTN and one symptomless accession despite systemic infection with BBWV2-PAP1. These genetic resources will be useful in pepper breeding programs to deploy resistance to BBWV2 and CMV.
To characterise the prevalence and persistence of anaemia among Samoan children over a 2–3-year period.
Data were from two consecutive waves (2015 and 2017–2018) of the Ola Tuputupua’e ‘Growing up’ study. Anaemia (Hb < 11·0 or 11·5 g/dl for 2–4 and ≥ 5 years old, respectively) was considered ‘transient’ when it occurred at only one wave or ‘persistent’ if it was present at two consecutive waves. Child, maternal and household correlates of anaemia were examined using log-binomial and modified Poisson regressions.
Eleven Samoan villages.
Mother–child pairs (n 257) recruited in 2015 and reassessed in 2017–2018.
Anaemia prevalence was 33·9 % in 2015 and 28·0 % in 2017–2018; 35·6 % of cases identified in 2015 were persistent. Risk of anaemia at only one wave was lower among children who were older in 2015 (age 4 v. 2 years, adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 0·54, (95 % CI 0·35, 0·84), P = 0·007), had older mothers (≥ 40 v. 18–29 years, aRR = 0·61, (95 % CI 0·39, 0·95), P = 0·029) and had higher daily sodium intake (for every 100 mg/d, aRR = 0·97, (95 % CI 0·95, 0·99), P = 0·003) than children with no anaemia. Children whose anaemia persisted were more likely to have had a mother with anaemia (aRR = 2·13, (95 % CI 1·17, 3·89), P = 0·013) and had higher daily dietary iron intake (for every 10 mg/d, aRR = 4·69, (95 % CI 1·33, 16·49), P = 0·016) than those with no anaemia.
Alongside broadly targeted prevention efforts, which are warranted given the moderate-high anaemia prevalence observed, specific attention should be paid to children with risk factors for persistent anaemia. Routine screening of children whose mothers have anaemia should be encouraged.
This paper presents a modularized autonomous pipeline inspection robot called MRINSPECT VII+, which we recently developed. MRINSPECT VII+ is aimed at inspect in-service urban gas pipelines with a diameter of 200 mm. The robot consists of five basic modules: driving, sensing, joint, and battery modules. For nondestructive testing (NDT), an NDT module can be added to the system. The driving module uses a multiaxial differential gear mechanism to provide traction forces to the robot. The sensor module recognizes the pipeline element using position-sensitive detector (PSD) sensors and a CCD camera. The control module contains a computing unit and manages the robot’s autonomous navigation. The battery module supplies power to the system. Each module is connected via backdrivable active joint modules, which provide flexibility while moving inside narrow pipelines. Additionally, the wireless communication module helps the system communicate with the ground station. We tested MRINSPECT VII+ in real pipeline environments and validated its feasibility successfully.
Sedentary behaviour is potentially a modifiable risk factor for depression and anxiety disorders, but findings have been inconsistent.
To assess associations of sedentary behavior with depression and anxiety symptoms and estimate the impact of replacing daily time spent in sedentary behaviors with sleep, light, or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, using novel compositional data analysis methods.
Prospective cohort study in with 60,235 UK Biobank participants (mean age: 56; 56% female). Exposure was baseline daily movement behaviours (accelerometer-assessed sedentary behaviour, physical activity, and self-reported total sleep). Outcomes were depression and anxiety symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalised Anxiety Disorders-7) at follow up.
Replacing 60 minutes of sedentary behaviour with light activity, moderate-to-vigorous activity, and sleep was associated with lower depression symptom scores by 1·3% (95%CI, 0·4%-2·1%), 12·5% (95%CI, 11·4%-13·5%), and 7·6% (95%CI, 6·9%-8·4%), and lower odds of depression by 0·95 (95%CI, 0·94-0·96), 0·75 (95%CI, 0·74-0·76), and 0·90 (95%CI, 0·90-0·91) at follow-up. Replacing 60 minutes of sedentary behaviour with moderate-to-vigorous activity and sleep was associated with lower anxiety symptom scores by 6·6% (95%CI, 5·5%-7·6%) and 4·5% (95%CI, 3·7%-5·2%), and lower odds of meeting the threshold for an anxiety disorder by 0·90 (95%CI, 0·89-0·90) and 0·97 (95%CI, 0·96-0·97) at follow-up. However, replacing 60 minutes of sedentary behaviour with light activity was associated with higher anxiety symptom scores by 4·5% (95%CI, 3·7%-5·3%) and higher odds of an anxiety disorder by 1·07 (95%CI, 1·06-1·08).
Sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for increased depression and anxiety symptoms in adults, but different replacement activities differentially influence mental health.
Opium tincture (OT) is widely used for opioid substitution treatment (OST) in Iran.
To determine if OT is a safe and effective medication for OST.
Opium Trial was a multicenter, double‐blind, noninferiority randomized controlled trial, with 204 participants with opioid dependence in Iran. Participants were then randomized to OT or methadone arms with an allocation ratio of 1:1 and were followed for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was retention in treatment, compared between the two groups using both intention-To-Treat (ITT) and Per-Protocol (PP) analyses.
A total of 70 participants (IT: 68.6%, PP: 69.3%) in methadone arm and 61 participants (ITT: 59.8%, PP: 60.4%) in OT arm remained in the treatment. The relative retention rate was 1.15 (0.97, 1.36) in both analyses in favour of methadone. A total of 46 out of 152 (30.3%) participants in OT arm and 83 out of 168 (49.4%) participants in methadone arm reported opioid use outside the treatment. The difference in these two proportions (OT - methadone) was 19%: (10%, 28%) in favour of OT. The proportion of patients with adverse events were not different between the two arms (P = 0.06). There was no serious AE in OT arm.
Opium tincture is a clinically effective and safe medication, but this study could not conclude if it was as equally effective as methadone in retaining participants in treatment, but it showed that OT was superior to methadone in reducing opioid use outside the treatment.
Hwa-Byung is a unique syndrome based on social-cultural background of South Korea. However, the definition of Hwa-Byung has not been established. For example, Hwa-Byung Diagnostic Interview Schedule(Kim, Kwon, Lee & Park, 2004) and Hwa-Byung Scale(Kwon et al., 2008) that are generally used in clinical practices defined Hwa-Byung differently. According to this, there is a slight difference in the symptoms that are measured.
The purpose of our study is to establish the concept and symptoms of Hwa-Byung.
First, we review DSM-4, previous literatures and concept of Hwa-Byung in assessment tools. Through this, core features and characteristic symptoms are consisted. Second, a concept of Hwa-Byung that this study constructed is reviewed by clinical psychologists and Korean oriental psychiatrists. Finally, concepts and symptoms are defined.
Comprehensive definition of Hwa-Byung is established. Hwa-Byung was identified as a syndrome with symptoms that exploded in the form of anger because emotions such as anger could not be resolved. psychological symptoms include resentment, the baggage of mind, or a representative symptom of han. And physical symptoms include feeling heavy, heat, rush, lumps in the neck or chest. Finally, these physical and psychological symptoms are associated with distinct stressful events.
Our study defined the concept and categorized for physical and emotional symptoms of Hwa-Byung. This result suggests that it can contribute to the development and revision of the Hwa-Byung assessment tools.
At the turn of the twenty-first century, our understanding of personality disorders radically evolved as research on their biological characteristics and effective evidence-based treatments (EBTs) emerged to challenge preexisting notions of these syndromes as defensive, psychologically determined, and untreatable. Reflecting the turmoil of a paradigm shift, intense controversy raged in attempts to revise the diagnostic system for personality disorders in the transition from the DSM-IV to the DSM-V. Proposed changes included both the elimination of five of the ten existing DSM personality disorders (narcissistic, histrionic, schizoid, paranoid, and dependent) and the implementation of a complex diagnostic system involving the evaluation of both categorical prototypes and dimensional traits of personality. The extremity of these proposed changes in the diagnostic system provoked major opposition among prominent experts, ultimately leading to the retention of the existing set of personality disorder criteria and relegation of the proposed alternative model to a section calling for further research. One prominent change in the transition to the fifth edition of DSM was the elimination of the multi-axial system, ending the segregation of Axis II disorders from Axis I disorders.
Clozapine is generally considered as the treatment of choice for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). However, its superiority has recently been questioned because olanzapine has been suggested as non-inferior to clozapine in its effectiveness.
We aimed to investigate the current status of clozapine prescriptions to identify any disparity between clinical guidelines and real-world practices.
In this study, we utilised the Health Insurance Review Agency database in the Republic of Korea to investigate the real-world effectiveness of clozapine for patients with TRS. We compared differences in patient variables before and after clozapine administration, and we also performed survival analyses for both psychiatric admissions and emergency room visits among patients who used clozapine or olanzapine.
This study investigated an incident cohort of 64 442 patients, and 2338 patients have been prescribed clozapine. Of these, 998 patients had TRS. In survival analysis, clozapine showed a worse survival rate for psychiatric admissions than olanzapine (hazard ratio 0.615). We also identified that clinicians tended to try a number of antipsychotics, as recommended, before starting patients on clozapine.
In conclusion, we found that olanzapine led to higher survival rates for psychiatric admissions than clozapine. Thus, considering the risk of serious adverse effects, clozapine may be used conservatively. Considering several studies advocating superior efficacy of clozapine, further studies with extensive data are recommended.
Although product family design methods are well established, little research has focused on Product-Service-System (PSS) family design. A PSS family design method is proposed in this paper that parallels methodology for designing product families. Separate platforms are proposed for products and for services. However, couplings between product and service platforms are identified and incorporated into the design method. Design problem formulations are proposed for PSS family platforms and for the PSS family itself, using a module-based approach, in contrast to a platform scaling approach. Alternative methods are investigated and compared for solving these problems. The application domain of Assistive Mobility (AM) is identified as a promising PSS family in this work. If smart technologies are integrated into AM devices, such as manual wheelchairs, powered wheelchairs, walkers, and rollators, then patient diagnosis and treatment, as well as device maintenance, services are enabled with these smart technologies, demonstrating that smart AM devices are a promising PSS family.
This study aimed to analyse if there were any associations between patulous Eustachian tube occurrence and climatic factors and seasonality.
The correlation between the monthly average number of patients diagnosed with patulous Eustachian tube and climatic factors in Seoul, Korea, from January 2010 to December 2016, was statistically analysed using national data sets.
The relative risk for patulous Eustachian tube occurrence according to season was significantly higher in summer and autumn, and lower in winter than in spring (relative risk (95 per cent confidence interval): 1.334 (1.267–1.404), 1.219 (1.157–1.285) and 0.889 (0.840–0.941) for summer, autumn and winter, respectively). Temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity had a moderate positive (r = 0.648), negative (r = –0.601) and positive (r = 0.492) correlation with the number of patulous Eustachian tube cases, respectively.
The number of patulous Eustachian tube cases was highest in summer and increased in proportion to changes in temperature and humidity, which could be due to physiological changes caused by climatic factors or diet trends.