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Vaccines against HPV are highly efficacious in preventing infection and disease in the cervix, vulva, anus, oropharynx as well as the anogenital warts caused by HPV types included in the vaccine cocktail. The efficacy is optimal if vaccines are given in prepubertal girls and boys before coitarche, while it remains an individual choice for older women. Vaccination is efficacious in women who have been infected but cleared the infection, although the upper age of vaccination depends on cost-effectiveness and is country-specific. School-based gender-neutral vaccination optimizes coverage and herd immunity. Two doses suffice under the age of 15 with an interval of 6–12 months, while the standard three-dose regimen is recommended thereafter. Vaccine will modify screening strategies, possibly with longer screening intervals in vaccinated cohorts, but will not obviate them. Vaccination in low-resource setting is especially important as lack of infrastructure prevents screening, but affordability remains a major issue.
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