To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
While cannabis use is a well-established risk factor for psychosis, little is known about any association between reasons for first using cannabis (RFUC) and later patterns of use and risk of psychosis.
We used data from 11 sites of the multicentre European Gene-Environment Interaction (EU-GEI) case–control study. 558 first-episode psychosis patients (FEPp) and 567 population controls who had used cannabis and reported their RFUC.
We ran logistic regressions to examine whether RFUC were associated with first-episode psychosis (FEP) case–control status. Path analysis then examined the relationship between RFUC, subsequent patterns of cannabis use, and case–control status.
Controls (86.1%) and FEPp (75.63%) were most likely to report ‘because of friends’ as their most common RFUC. However, 20.1% of FEPp compared to 5.8% of controls reported: ‘to feel better’ as their RFUC (χ2 = 50.97; p < 0.001). RFUC ‘to feel better’ was associated with being a FEPp (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.03–2.95) while RFUC ‘with friends’ was associated with being a control (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.83). The path model indicated an association between RFUC ‘to feel better’ with heavy cannabis use and with FEPp-control status.
Both FEPp and controls usually started using cannabis with their friends, but more patients than controls had begun to use ‘to feel better’. People who reported their reason for first using cannabis to ‘feel better’ were more likely to progress to heavy use and develop a psychotic disorder than those reporting ‘because of friends’.
Suicidality is one of the most common complications of mental disorders, so that the identification of potential biomarkers may be relevant in clinical practice. To date, the role of serum lipids and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been explored albeit with conflicting results. To the best of our knowledge, no study has explored lipid levels concomitantly with NLR in relation to violent suicide attempts. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether serum lipid levels and NLR might be associated with the violent method of suicide attempts.
The study group consisted of 163 inpatients who attempted suicide. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of hospitalization to measure total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides, and NLR. Descriptive analyses of the total sample were performed. The included patients were divided into two groups according to violent/nonviolent method. Groups were compared in terms of lipid (MANCOVAs).
Plasma levels of total cholesterol (F = 5.66; P = .02), LDL (F = 4.94; P = .03), VLDL (F = 5.66; P = .02), and NLR (F = 8.17; P < .01) resulted to be significantly lower in patients that used a violent method compared to patients who attempted suicide with a nonviolent method.
Low cholesterol, LDL, and VLDL levels as well as low NLR value were associated with a violent method of suicide attempt in patients with mental disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.
Increasing evidence suggests that immunological and inflammatory dysfunctions may play an important role in predisposition, onset, and progression of schizophrenia and related psychosis. The activation of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system, especially microglia and monocytes, has been reported in schizophrenia. We carried out this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate if there are significant differences in monocyte count comparing healthy controls with people suffering from schizophrenia and related disorders.
We searched main electronic databases; nine records met all our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analyses based on random effects models have been carried out generating pooled standardised mean differences (SMDs) of monocyte count in peripheral blood between schizophrenia and related psychosis and healthy controls. Heterogeneity was estimated. Relevant sensitivity and subgroup analyses were conducted.
Patients showed higher monocyte count as compared with healthy control (SMD = 0.393; p = 0.001). Heterogeneity across studies was from moderate to high (I2 = 65.952%); sensitivity analysis leaving out two studies responsible for most of the heterogeneity showed a slightly higher SMD. Subgroup analyses confirmed this result, showing no significant differences in the effect size across different study characteristics.
Monocyte count can be considered an indirect marker of microglia activation in the central nervous system. Thus, the observed higher monocyte count in patients could be considered as a possible peripheral marker of microgliaʼs activation in schizophrenia disorder.
To investigate the frequency of psychiatric disorders in subjects wishing to lose weight categorized according to BMI.
An academic outpatient clinical nutrition service in Italy.
A total of 207 subjects (thirty-nine men and 168 women; mean age: 38·7 (sd 14·1) years) consecutively attending the study centre for the first time between January 2003 and December 2006.
In the entire study group, eighty-three (40 %) subjects had a psychiatric disorder according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Eating disorders were the most prevalent psychiatric condition (thirty-six subjects, 17·4 %), followed by mood and anxiety disorders (9·7 % and 8·7 %, respectively). The frequency of psychiatric disorders among different BMI categories was as follows: 75·0 % in underweight, 50·0 % in normal weight, 33·3 % in overweight and 33·3 % in obese subjects.
Psychiatric disorders may be frequently found in subjects wishing to lose weight. Our results highlight the importance of psychiatric assessment especially in underweight and normal-weight subjects.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.