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A testing rate for measles above 80% is required by the WHO European Region Measles Elimination strategy to verify elimination. To comply with this rate, we explored factors associated with the return of oral fluid kits (OFK) by suspected measles cases. We described the cases and conducted a mixed-effects analysis to assess the relationship between socio-demographic and public health management characteristics and the likelihood of returning an OFK to the reference laboratory. Of 3,929 cases who were sent a postal OFK, 2,513 (67%) returned the kit. Adjusting for confounding, registration with a general practitioner (GP) (aOR:1.48, 95%CI:1.23–1.76) and living in a less deprived area (aOR:1.35, 95%CI:1.04–1.74) were associated with an increased likelihood of returning the OFK. The odds of returning the OFK also increased if the HPT contacted the parents/guardians of all cases prior to sending the kit and confirmed their address (aOR:2.01, 95%CI:1.17–3.42). Cases notified by a hospital (aOR:1.94, 95%CI:1.31–2.87) or GP (aOR:1.52; 95%CI:1.06–2.16) also had higher odds of returning the OFK. HPTs may want to consider these factors when managing suspected cases of measles since this may help in increasing the testing rates to the WHO-recommended level.
We investigated risk factors associated with COVID-19 by conducting a retrospective, frequency-matched case-control study, with three sampling periods (August–October 2020). We compared cases completing routine contact tracing to asymptomatic population controls. Multivariable analyses estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for non-household community settings. Meta-analyses using random effects provided pooled odds ratios (pORs). Working in healthcare (pOR 2.87; aORs 2.72, 2.81, 3.08, for study periods 1–3 respectively), social care (pOR 4.15; aORs 2.46, 5.06, 5.41, for study periods 1–3 respectively) or hospitality (pOR 2.36; aORs 2.01, 2.54, 2.63, for study periods 1–3 respectively) were associated with increased odds of being a COVID-19 case. Additionally, working in bars, pubs and restaurants, warehouse settings, construction, educational settings were significantly associated. While definitively determining where transmission occurs is impossible, we provide evidence that in certain sectors, the impact of mitigation measures may only be partial and reinforcement of measures should be considered in these settings.
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