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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma (T.) gondii. Limited data are available on the occurrence of T. gondii in women especially pregnant women in Pakistan. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and risk factors associated with T. gondii in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Punjab Province, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 593 samples were collected from pregnant (n = 293) and non-pregnant (n = 300) women of District Headquarter Hospitals of Chiniot, Faisalabad, Jhang and Okara, Pakistan. Data related to demographic parameters and risk factors were collected using a pretested questionnaire on blood sampling day. Serum samples were screened for antibodies (IgG) against T. gondii using ELISA. A univariant and binomial logistic regression was applied to estimate the association between seropositive and explanatory variables considering the 95% confidence interval. P value ⩽0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analysis. Out of 593, 44 (7.42%) women were seropositive for T. gondii IgG antibodies. Occupation, age, sampling location, socioeconomic status, contact with cat, pregnancy status and trimester of pregnancy were significantly associated with seropositivity for T. gondii antibodies. Location and trimester of pregnancy were identified as potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity based on binomial logistic regression. Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Therefore, now a necessitated awareness is required to instruct the individuals about these infectious diseases (toxoplasmosis) and their control strategies to maintain the health of human population. Moreover, health awareness among public can help the minimization of T. gondii infection during pregnancy and subsequent risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.
Residual right ventricular outflow obstruction during Tetralogy of Fallot repair necessitates peri-operative revision often requiring trans-annular patch with its negative sequels. Bidirectional Glenn shunt in this setting reduces trans-pulmonary gradient to avoid revision.
Bidirectional Glenn shunt was added during Tetralogy repair in patients with significant residual obstruction. A total of 53 patients between January, 2011 and June, 2018 were included. Final follow-up was conducted in July, 2018.
Mean age at operation was 5.63±3.1 years. Right to left ventricular pressure ratio reduced significantly (0.91±0.09 versus 0.68±0.05; p<0.001) after bidirectional Glenn, avoiding revision in all cases. Glenn pressures at ICU admission decreased significantly by the time of ICU discharge (16.7±3.02 versus 13.5±2.19; p<0.001). Pleural drainage ≥ 7 days was seen in 14 (26.4%) patients. No side effects related to bidirectional Glenn-like facial swelling or veno-venous collaterals were noted. Mortality was 3.7%. Discharge echocardiography showed a mean trans-pulmonary gradient of 32.11±5.62 mmHg that decreased significantly to 25.64±5 (p<0.001) at the time of follow-up. Pulmonary insufficiency was none to mild in 45 (88.2%) and moderate in 6 (11.8%). Mean follow-up was 36.12±25.15 months (range 0.5–90). There was no interim intervention or death. At follow-up, all the patients were in NYHA functional class 1 with no increase in severity of pulmonary insufficiency.
Supplementary bidirectional Glenn shunt significantly reduced residual right ventricular outflow obstruction during Tetralogy of Fallot repair avoiding revision with satisfactory early and mid-term results.
Kaolin deposits >10 m thick overlie unconformably a Mesozoic ophiolite sequence at Jabal Humr, Masirah Island, Oman. The clay's mineralogical and chemical composition, plasticity and moisture content were measured to determine its genesis and suitability for commercial usage. The clay-rich raw material contains 76–94% kaolinite and varying amounts of quartz (micro sheets coating kaolinite) and calcite as well as secondary sulfates. The mode of occurrence, an associated shallow-marine iron oolite/pisolite unit, various secondary minerals which can only form in a gossan environment (oxidation zone of a much older sulfide deposit), and minerals such as gypsum that are highly unstable within a laterite, have led to the conclusion that the Jabal Humr kaolinite deposit cannot have the lateritic origin that has been suggested previously. Rather, it must have formed in a coastal marine environment with a subsequent strong geochemical overprint from the underlying gossan environment, after being enveloped by Tertiary carbonates. A high plasticity and its light colour after firing indicate that this material is suitable for industrial use, especially in pottery. Occasional high contents of up to ∼25% extremely fine-grained quartz (sheet-like, <50 nm thick) reduce the need for quartz addition during the processing for ceramic materials; such natural kaolinite-quartz mixtures already produce a suitable blend of materials. The possible occurrence of spalling during or after firing, caused by the sporadic presence of accessory calcite, can be avoided by by further addition of quartz which leads to the formation of calcium silicate.
Characterization of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins is an important criterion for identifying genotypes with good bread-making quality. In synthetic hexaploids (SHs), the D-genome encodes several allelic variants of HMW glutenins that require proper identification prior to their utilization for bread wheat (BW) improvement. In this study, SHs with promising agronomic features were characterized for HMW glutenin composition. Seven different allelic variants were observed at the Glu-Dt1 locus, three of which (1Dx1.5+1Dy10, 1Dx1.5+1Dy12.2 and 1Dx2.1+1Dy10) have not been previously reported in existing BW germplasm. The results also showed a variety of D-genome-encoded subunits along with superior glutenin alleles in the B-genome (1Bx7+1By8, 1Bx6+1By8 and 1Bx13+1By16). About 63% of these SHs encoded favourable allelic variants of HMW glutenins, which make them a good choice for improvement in wheat bread making. Glu-Dt1 encoded favourable allelic variants (1Dx5+1Dy10 and 1Dx1.5+1Dy10) that are frequently observed in SHs can be easily incorporated into BW through recombination breeding.
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