The extractive industry has contributed to the development of international law since colonial times. Contracts between states and extractive companies largely drive this global industry. This essay situates extractive industry contracts involving Indigenous peoples, long term actors who have significantly informed the development of international law, within the context of international law. While these contracts are usually analyzed from domestic perspectives, they are impacted by international norms and, as developing transnational practices, even have the potential to show ways ahead in international law. As regards engagement with Indigenous peoples, contracts, which are typically regarded as private instruments, have significant public ramifications. This is especially the case where states, Indigenous peoples, and transnational corporations (TNCs) are involved and where internationally recognized principles relating to Indigenous rights, notably free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) are implicated.