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Bruineberg and colleagues argue that a realist interpretation of Markov blankets inadvertently relies upon unfounded assumptions. However, insofar as their diagnosis is accurate, their prescribed instrumentalism may ultimately prove insufficient as a complete remedy. Drawing upon a process-based perspective on living systems, we suggest a potential way to avoid some of the assumptions behind problems described by Bruineberg and colleagues.
Writers of the 1920s–1970s were concerned with education beyond the excoriating critique of the formal colonial school system that we see in many of their works. For them, education in the broadest sense was crucial to the decolonial project, and literature an activist intervention in that project. Lamming and Brathwaite as well as C. L. R James wrote ‘position’ statements on education and were interventionists in the formal school system. However, for most of the period, West Indian literature made little impact within that system, which continued as colonialism’s strongest bastion well after independence. The literature had its greatest impact when it was channelled through popular performance arenas, trade unions, newspapers, the ‘little magazines’ and other institutions outside the school setting. This chapter discusses the slow painful steps towards decolonizing literary education through shifts in publishing and curricula, the advent of regional examinations, and the work of critics and linguists to decolonize attitudes towards the Creole languages, one of the most powerful dissemination tools.
This chapter aims to set the record straight about a special sort of intelligence exhibited by habitual doings. It defends an enactivist account of habitual doings which, at its core, depicts habits as flexible and adjustable modes of response that are world directed and context sensitive. So understood, habits are wholly unlike the exercise of blind mechanisms or mindless reflexes. Nevertheless, we resist the familiar forced choice of thereby understanding habits in standard cognitivist terms. Our proposal aims to avoid the twin mistakes of either underintellectualizing or overintellectualizing habits. In tune with our enactivist elucidation of the core character of habits, the chapter also explicates how habits, so conceived, can support and thwart our larger projects.
George L. Cowgill had a major influence on the study of the ancient city of Teotihuacan and the development and promotion of quantitative methods in archaeology. His wit, teaching, and research influenced many in the profession. We draw on two published autobiographical works (Cowgill 2008a, 2013a), some unpublished autobiographical notes (Cowgill 1983), his many publications, and our own associations with George.
Osiurak and Reynaud (O&R) claim that research into the origin of cumulative technological culture has been too focused on social cognition and has consequently neglected the importance of uniquely human reasoning capacities. This commentary raises two interrelated theoretical concerns about O&R's notion of technical-reasoning capacities, and suggests how these concerns might be met.
Cognitive changes that accompany the gradual degradation of neural systems are countervailed by a set of attention-related processes that serve to reorganize and maintain function with advancing age. This chapter focuses on the potential role of the right hemisphere fronto-parietal network in maintenance of adequate sustained attention to the environment by older adults, as well as self-monitoring of changes in their cognition and behavior over time. Modulation of norepinephrine activity in the locus coeruleus, via its impact on this right lateralized network, may be of particular importance in increasing the capacity of older people to preserve cognitive functioning as a multitude of biological changes take place in their brains. We review studies demonstrating that noninvasive electrical brain stimulation to the right prefrontal cortex improves both sustained attention and error awareness, suggesting that this key interconnected hub region in the right hemisphere holds the potential to be exploited and upregulated in older adults to ameliorate deficits.
The Teotihuacan Mapping Project (TMP) provided vast quantities of invaluable data to our understanding of this famous ancient city. The ‘Documenting, Disseminating, and Archiving Data from the Teotihuacan Mapping Project’ aims to analyse, re-examine and ultimately coalesce TMP data for entry into The Digital Archaeological Record.
Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
Twenty one samples of relatively pure tubular halloysites (HNTs) from localities in Australia, China, New Zealand, Scotland, Turkey and the USA have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and electron microscopy. The halloysites occur in cylindrical tubular forms with circular or elliptical cross sections and curved layers and also as prismatic tubular forms with polygonal cross sections and flat faces. Measurements of particle size indicate a range from 40 to 12,700 nm for tube lengths and from 20 to 600 nm for diameters. Size distributions are positively skewed with mean lengths ranging from 170 to 950 nm and mean diameters from 50 to 160 nm. Cylindrical tubes are systematically smaller than prismatic ones. Features related to order/ disorder in XRD patterns e.g. as measured by a ‘cylindrical/prismatic’ (CP) index and IR spectra as measured by an ‘OH-stretching band ratio’ are related to the proportions of cylindrical vs. prismatic tubes and correlated with other physical measurements such as specific surface area and cation exchange capacity. The relationships of size to geometric form, along with evidence for the existence of the prismatic form in the hydrated state and the same 2M1 stacking sequence irrespective of hydration state (i.e. 10 vs. 7 Å) or form, suggests that prismatic halloysites are the result of continued growth of cylindrical forms.
Since 1998 archaeological investigations on Holme-next-the-Sea beach have recorded the waterlogged remains of two Bronze Age timber circles, timber structures, coppiced trees, metal objects, and salt- and freshwater marshes. The second timber circle (Holme II) is only the third waterlogged structure of its type to be discovered in Britain and only the second to be dated by dendrochronology. The felling of timbers used in Holme II has been dated to the spring or summer of 2049 bc, exactly the time as the felling of the timbers used to build the first circle (Holme I). This shared date provides the only known example of two adjacent monuments constructed at precisely the same time in British prehistory. It also informs comparisons between Holme II and other British timber circles and therefore helps develop interpretations. This paper suggests Holme II was a mortuary monument directly related to the use of Holme I.
In the 1960s, the Teotihuacan Mapping Project (TMP) focused an ambitious, multiyear survey program on the pre-Columbian urban center of Teotihuacan. In addition to creating a highly detailed map, the TMP made systematic records of surface remains and collected nearly one million artifacts from roughly 5,000 provenience tracts. Taken together, the spatial, descriptive, and artifactual data collected by the TMP still constitutes one of the most extensive and most detailed records in existence for any ancient city. This paper characterizes and provides an update on TMP surface observations, particularly as they exist in digital format. Several analytical case studies illustrate substantive ways in which these data have been used in the decades since the TMP survey to investigate the culture and history of ancient Teotihuacan. The utility of extensive surface survey data for investigating key urban organizational elements such as neighborhoods and social districts is briefly considered, along with the growing importance of the TMP collections and records as increasingly large parts of Teotihuacan are lost to urban sprawl and destructive agricultural practices.
Progress toward combining time-resolved experiments with periodic three-dimensional analysis of the evolved microstructural state has been made recently. In situ electron microscopy is used to observe in real time the development of irradiation defects and the influence of these defects on dislocation behavior. Three-dimensional characterization provides information on the true spatial distribution of defects and clarifies effects of the free surfaces in thin films. This quasi-four dimensional analysis approach has been applied to understand the formation of channels in irradiated alloys, the depth distribution of ion damage in an electron transparent foil, and the dislocation channel interactions with grain boundaries. The new insight obtained from these experiments is highlighted and contrasted with findings from simulations.
Discovering Biological Mechanisms through Exploration
The availability of massive amounts of data in biological sciences is forcing us to rethink the role of hypothesis-driven investigation in modern research. Soon thousands, if not millions, of whole-genome DNA and protein sequence data setswill be available thanks to continued improvements in high-throughput sequencing and analysis technologies. At the same time, high-throughput experimental platforms for gene expression, protein and protein fragment measurements, and others are driving experimental data sets to extreme scales. As a result, biological sciences are undergoing a paradigm shift from hypothesisdriven to data-driven scientific exploration. In hypothesis-driven research, one begins with observations, formulates a hypothesis, then tests that hypothesis in controlled experiments. In a data-rich environment, however, one often begins with only a cursory hypothesis (such as some class of molecular components is related to a cellular process) that may require evaluating hundreds or thousands of specific hypotheses rapidly. This large number of experiments is generally intractable to perform in physical experiments. However, often data can be brought to bear to rapidly evaluate and refine these candidate hypotheses into a small number of testable ones. Also, often the amount of data required to discover and refine a hypothesis in this way overwhelms conventional analysis software and hardware. Ideally advanced hardware can help the situation, but conventional batch-mode access models for high-performance computing are not amenable to real-time analysis in larger workflows. We present a model for real-time data-intensive hypothesis discovery process that unites parallel software applications, high-performance hardware, and visual representation of the output.
A single nucleotide polymorphism rs12807809 located upstream of the neurogranin (NRGN) gene has been identified as a risk variant for schizophrenia in recent genome-wide association studies. To date, there has been little investigation of the endophenotypic consequences of this variant, and our own investigations have suggested that the effects of this gene are not apparent at the level of cognitive function in patients or controls. Because the impact of risk variants may be more apparent at the level of brain, the aim of this investigation was to delineate whether NRGN genotype predicted variability in brain structure and/or function. Healthy individuals participated in structural (N = 140) and/or functional (N = 36) magnetic resonance imaging (s/fMRI). Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray and white matter volumes between carriers of the non-risk C allele (i.e., CC/CT) and those who were homozygous for the risk T allele. Functional imaging data were acquired during the performance of a spatial working memory task, and were also analyzed with respect to the difference between C carriers and T homozygotes. There was no effect of the NRGN variant rs12807809 on behavioral performance or brain structure. However, there was a main effect of genotype on brain activity during performance of the working memory task, such that while C carriers exhibited a load-independent decrease in left superior frontal gyrus/BA10, TT individuals failed to show a similar decrease in activity. The failure to disengage this ventromedial prefrontal region, despite preserved performance, may be indicative of a reduction in processing efficiency in healthy TT carriers. Although it remains to be established whether this holds true in larger samples and in patient cohorts, if valid, this suggests a potential mechanism by which NRGN variability might contribute to schizophrenia risk.
Impaired cognition is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) that precedes, accompanies, and often outlasts a patient's clinical symptoms. The success of new generation antipsychotics, as well as their failure to ameliorate the persistent disabilities associated with the disorder are well documented. Consequently, a number of psychosocial and cognitive interventions have been developed to address specific aspects of disability not adequately alleviated by medication.
Among these, interventions adapted from the acquired brain literature that target cognitively based disability (cognitive remediation therapy; CRT) have received significant empirical support both for ameliorating specific deficits in memory, attention and executive function, and improving real world outcome. CRT strategies have focused either on providing drill-based training aimed at increasing capacity or providing behavioural strategies for compensating for cognitive deficits, or a mixture of both. Nonetheless, these interventions have varied widely and several questions remain.
This review provides a brief overview of cognitive remediation therapies in psychosis, discusses evidence for its success, and outlines a number of questions that remain about its implementation. Given the current unavailability of cognitive remediation as part of standard care in Irish mental health services, we conclude by describing one such intervention developed within our clinical research group and the questions we hope to address in making this programme more widely available to Irish patients.
We consider how a number of interventions that would normally interfere with function have paradoxically improved symptoms in patients with neurological conditions. These include distorting reality, constraining patients' ability to perform everyday tasks, impeding vision, temporarily disabling healthy brain tissue, and distracting patients from the task at hand. We argue that the effects of these diverse interventions can be understood within a general framework of brain function that emphasizes competition for limited capacity resources. We discuss how this competition can be biased to produce rehabilitation benefits.
Neurorehabilitation refers to any intervention that aims to reduce impairment caused by brain injury, disease or developmental abnormality. It also refers to techniques that help compensate for such impairments or that facilitate adjustment (Wilson,1996). Much that is effective in rehabilitation is far from paradoxical. People relearn and improve through practice, encouragement and the setting of incremental, achievable goals (e.g. Wilson et al., 2009). Where full restoration of a function is not possible, as is often the case, compensatory aids such as diaries and communication devices can facilitate independence (Kime, 2006; Kapur and Wilson, 2009). Patients and families can gain comfort, perspective and realistic hope from discussion with professionals and other patients.
In line with the focus of this book, here we concentrate on particular interventions that under normal circumstances may be considered deleterious or contrary to perceived wisdom, but which have been shown to reduce or offset impairment in people with brain injuries.
The material characterization toolbox has recently experienced a number of parallel revolutionary advances, foreshadowing a time in the near future when material scientists can quantify material structure evolution across spatial and temporal space simultaneously. This will provide insight to reaction dynamics in four-dimensions, spanning multiple orders of magnitude in both temporal and spatial space. This study presents the authors’ viewpoint on the material characterization field, reviewing its recent past, evaluating its present capabilities, and proposing directions for its future development. Electron microscopy; atom probe tomography; x-ray, neutron and electron tomography; serial sectioning tomography; and diffraction-based analysis methods are reviewed, and opportunities for their future development are highlighted. Advances in surface probe microscopy have been reviewed recently and, therefore, are not included [D.A. Bonnell et al.: Rev. Modern Phys. in Review]. In this study particular attention is paid to studies that have pioneered the synergetic use of multiple techniques to provide complementary views of a single structure or process; several of these studies represent the state-of-the-art in characterization and suggest a trajectory for the continued development of the field. Based on this review, a set of grand challenges for characterization science is identified, including suggestions for instrumentation advances, scientific problems in microstructure analysis, and complex structure evolution problems involving material damage. The future of microstructural characterization is proposed to be one not only where individual techniques are pushed to their limits, but where the community devises strategies of technique synergy to address complex multiscale problems in materials science and engineering.