To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Escherichia coli concentration levels in recreational water are used by beach managers to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal illness among beachgoers. We examined the relationship between specific environmental factors and E. coli concentration in recreational beaches in the Niagara Region. We analysed E. coli geometric means collected from eight beaches from two of the Great Lakes in the Niagara Region in Ontario, between 2011 and 2019. We applied path analysis to evaluate the relationship between the environmental factors and E. coli concentrations, including whether effects were direct or indirect via a mediator. Turbidity was found to be an important mediator for the indirect effect of environmental variables overall and in beach-specific models. Rainfall and streamflow had a positive indirect effect on E. coli via turbidity and a direct effect in five out of seven beach models. Streamflow was also a mediator for the indirect effect of previous day air temperature in five out of seven models. In three subset models, outfall E. coli concentration was a mediator for the effect of the environmental factors. Using a novel methodological approach, this study identifies important relationships and pathways that predict beach E. coli concentration in freshwater beaches located on two of the Great Lakes.
Subjective cognitive difficulties are common in mental illness and have a negative impact on role functioning. Little is understood about subjective cognition and the longitudinal relationship with depression and anxiety symptoms in young people.
To examine the relationship between changes in levels of depression and anxiety and changes in subjective cognitive functioning over 3 months in help-seeking youth.
This was a cohort study of 656 youth aged 12–25 years attending Australian headspace primary mental health services. Subjective changes in cognitive functioning (rated as better, same, worse) reported after 3 months of treatment was assessed using the Neuropsychological Symptom Self-Report. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of baseline levels of and changes in depression (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ9) and anxiety symptoms (seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale; GAD7) on changes in subjective cognitive function at follow-up while controlling for covariates.
With a one-point reduction in PHQ9 at follow-up, there was an estimated 11–18% increase in ratings of better subjective cognitive functioning at follow-up, relative to stable cognitive functioning. A one-point increase in PHQ9 from baseline to follow-up was associated with 7–14% increase in ratings of worse subjective cognitive functioning over 3 months, relative to stable cognitive functioning. A similar attenuated pattern of findings was observed for the GAD7.
A clear association exists between subjective cognitive functioning outcomes and changes in self-reported severity of affective symptoms in young people over the first 3 months of treatment. Understanding the timing and mechanisms of these associations is needed to tailor treatment.
There is strong evidence that foods containing dietary fibre protect against colorectal cancer, resulting at least in part from its anti-proliferative properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with two non-digestible carbohydrates, resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose (PD), on crypt cell proliferative state (CCPS) in the macroscopically normal rectal mucosa of healthy individuals. We also investigated relationships between expression of regulators of apoptosis and of the cell cycle on markers of CCPS. Seventy-five healthy participants were supplemented with RS and/or PD or placebo for 50 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (the Dietary Intervention, Stem cells and Colorectal Cancer (DISC) Study). CCPS was assessed, and the expression of regulators of the cell cycle and of apoptosis was measured by quantitative PCR in rectal mucosal biopsies. SCFA concentrations were quantified in faecal samples collected pre- and post-intervention. Supplementation with RS increased the total number of mitotic cells within the crypt by 60 % (P = 0·001) compared with placebo. This effect was limited to older participants (aged ≥50 years). No other differences were observed for the treatments with PD or RS as compared with their respective controls. PD did not influence any of the measured variables. RS, however, increased cell proliferation in the crypts of the macroscopically-normal rectum of older adults. Our findings suggest that the effects of RS on CCPS are not only dose, type of RS and health status-specific but are also influenced by age.
Bowel cancer risk is strongly influenced by lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity. Several studies have investigated the effects of adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) cancer prevention recommendations on outcomes such as all-cause and cancer-specific mortality, but the relationships with molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects on bowel cancer risk are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and wingless/integrated (WNT)-pathway-related markers of bowel cancer risk, including the expression of WNT pathway genes and regulatory microRNA (miRNA), secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) methylation and colonic crypt proliferative state in colorectal mucosal biopsies. Dietary and lifestyle data from seventy-five healthy participants recruited as part of the DISC Study were used. A scoring system was devised including seven of the cancer prevention recommendations and smoking status. The effects of total adherence score and scores for individual recommendations on the measured outcomes were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation analysis and unpaired t tests, respectively. Total adherence score correlated negatively with expression of Myc proto-oncogene (c-MYC) (P=0·039) and WNT11 (P=0·025), and high adherers had significantly reduced expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) (P=0·042), WNT11 (P=0·012) and c-MYC (P=0·048). Expression of axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3β), catenin β1 (CTNNB1) and WNT11 and of the oncogenic miRNA miR-17 and colonic crypt kinetics correlated significantly with scores for individual recommendations, including body fatness, red meat intake, plant food intake and smoking status. The findings from this study provide evidence for positive effects of adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations on WNT-pathway-related markers of bowel cancer risk.
A seed bioassay was developed and tested for the rapid identification of aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) and cyclohexanedione (CHD) resistance in wild oat. Two susceptible (S) genotypes, UM5 and Dumont, were treated with fenoxaprop-P and sethoxydim over a range of dosages on filter paper and agar. The former is a wild oat line and the latter a tame oat cultivar. Within 5 d, shoot and root development of both genotypes were completely inhibited by 10 μM fenoxaprop-P and 5 μM sethoxydim. These dosages were then tested to determine if they were suitable for distinguishing between resistant (R) and susceptible (S) plants. Agar medium was preferred over filter paper because of the ease of preparation and maintenance. Four known R wild oat populations were included in the tests. Those with high levels of resistance produced significantly longer coleoptiles and roots than S genotypes, but those with moderate or low levels of resistance could not be separated statistically from S biotypes based on quantitative measurements. However, after exposing the germinating, treated seeds to light for 24 to 48 h, all the R populations produced green coleoptiles and initiated a first leaf, unlike the S genotypes which did not turn green or produce any new growth. This procedure proved useful in discriminating between R and S genotypes and in ranking populations in terms of relative levels of resistance.
Patients with acute headache often undergo computed tomography (CT) followed by a lumbar puncture to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Our international study examined current practice, the perceived need for a clinical decision rule for acute headache and the required sensitivity for such a rule.
We approached 2100 emergency physicians from 4 countries (Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States) to participate in our survey by sampling the membership of their emergency associations. We used a modified Dillman technique with 3–5 notifications and a prenotification letter employing a combination of electronic mail and postal mail. Physicians were questioned about neurologically intact patients who presented with headache. Analysis included both descriptive statistics for the entire sample and stratification by country.
The total response rate was 54.7% (1149/2100). Respondents were primarily male (75.5%), with a mean age of 42.5 years and a mean 12.3 years of emergency department (ED) experience. Of the physicians who responded, 49.5% thought all acute headache patients should be investigated with CT and 57.4% felt CT should always be followed by lumbar puncture. Of the respondents, 95.7% reported they would consider using a clinical decision rule for patients with acute headache to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Respondents deemed the median sensitivity required by such a rule to be 99% (interquartile range 98%–99%). Approximately 1 in 5 physicians suggested that 100% sensitivity was required.
Emergency physicians report that they would welcome a clinical decision rule for headache that would determine which patients require costly or invasive tests to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. The required sensitivity of such a rule was realistic. These results will inform and inspire the development of clinical decision rules for acute headache in the ED.
The present study examined neuropsychological (NP) functioning and associated medical, neurological, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and psychiatric findings in 389 nondemented males infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1), and in 111 uninfected controls. Using a comprehensive NP test battery, we found increased rates of impairment at each successive stage of HIV infection. HIV-related NP impairment was generally mild, especially in the medically asymptomatic stage of infection, and most often affected attention, speed of information processing, and learning efficiency; this pattern is consistent with earliest involvement of subcortical or frontostriatal brain systems. NP impairment could not be explained on the bases of mood disturbance, recreational drug or alcohol use, or constitutional symptoms; by contrast, impairment in HIV-infected subjects was related to central brain atrophy on MRI, as well as to evidence of cellular immune activation and neurological abnormalities linked to the central nervous system. (JINS, 1995, 1, 231–251.)
Cementitious material is the most commonly used encapsulation medium for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. This paper focuses on the aqueous durability of a Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) cementitious wasteform – a possible candidate for the proposed intermediate level waste management facility in Australia. A series of medium term (up to 92 months) durability tests, without leachate replacement, were conducted on samples of this wasteform.
The wasteform was made from cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag and a simulated waste liquor. The compressive strength (39 MPa) was typical of MTR cement wasteforms and well above that required for handling or storage. The wasteform was an inhomogeneous mixture containing calcite, a calcium silicate hydrate phase, hydrotalcite and unreacted slag particles. After leaching for 92 months the crystallinity of the calcium silicate hydrate phase increased.
The majority of the releases of Ca, Si, Al, Sr, S, Na and K was reached within 4 days of leaching, with the maxima ie. the highest concentrations in the leachates, occurring at 3 months for Ca, Al, Sr, S, Na and K, and at 1 month for Si. For the longer leach periods (6 months and 3 months respectively) there was a slight reduction in concentration in the leachates, and these levels were similar to those for the longest period of 92 months, suggesting steady-state conditions prevailing after 3 to 6 months of leaching. The highest releases of matrix elements were for Na (37%), K (40%) and S (16%). Releases for elements such as Ca, Na, Al and Sr were similar in magnitude to those reported by the UKAEA in earlier MTR studies.
After leaching for 92 months there was an alteration layer about 80 ∞m deep where calcium has been depleted. Na, K and Sr showed signs of diffusion towards the outer part of the cement samples.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.