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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly increased depression rates, particularly in emerging adults. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in depression risk before and during COVID-19 in a cohort of emerging adults in the U.S. and to determine whether prior drinking or sleep habits could predict the severity of depressive symptoms during the pandemic.
Participants were 525 emerging adults from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a five-site community sample including moderate-to-heavy drinkers. Poisson mixed-effect models evaluated changes in the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) from before to during COVID-19, also testing for sex and age interactions. Additional analyses examined whether alcohol use frequency or sleep duration measured in the last pre-COVID assessment predicted pandemic-related increase in depressive symptoms.
The prevalence of risk for clinical depression tripled due to a substantial and sustained increase in depressive symptoms during COVID-19 relative to pre-COVID years. Effects were strongest for younger women. Frequent alcohol use and short sleep duration during the closest pre-COVID visit predicted a greater increase in COVID-19 depressive symptoms.
The sharp increase in depression risk among emerging adults heralds a public health crisis with alarming implications for their social and emotional functioning as this generation matures. In addition to the heightened risk for younger women, the role of alcohol use and sleep behavior should be tracked through preventive care aiming to mitigate this looming mental health crisis.
To identify the behavioral determinants—both barriers and enablers—that may impact physician hand hygiene compliance.
A qualitative study involving semistructured key informant interviews with staff physicians and residents.
An urban, 1,100-bed multisite tertiary care Canadian hospital.
A total of 42 staff physicians and residents in internal medicine and surgery.
Semistructured interviews were conducted using an interview guide that was based on the theoretical domains framework (TDF), a behavior change framework comprised of 14 theoretical domains that explain health-related behavior change. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis involving a systematic 3-step approach: coding, generation of specific beliefs, and identification of relevant TDF domains.
Similar determinants were reported by staff physicians and residents and between medicine and surgery. A total of 53 specific beliefs from 9 theoretical domains were identified as relevant to physician hand hygiene compliance. The 9 relevant domains were knowledge; skills; beliefs about capabilities; beliefs about consequences; goals; memory, attention, and decision processes; environmental context and resources; social professional role and identity; and social influences.
We identified several key determinants that physicians believe influence whether and when they practice hand hygiene at work. These beliefs identify potential individual, team, and organization targets for behavior change interventions to improve physician hand hygiene compliance.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(12):1511–1520
Since June 1998, we have used an Amplatzer device whenever considered appropriate in patients with isolated defects within the oval fossa. The aim of this study was to define the total cohort of patients with isolated defects in the oval fossa seen at this hospital, so as to assess the impact of this policy on contemporary management. In the two-year period commencing 1st June 1998, 116 patients older than 6 months were seen with an isolated septal defect within the oval fossa. Mean age at closure or last review was 5.8 years, with a range from 0.5 to 20 years. In total, 42 (36%) patients were assigned to surgical closure, 25 (22%) to closure using an Amplatzer device, and 49 (42%) remained under clinical follow up. Direct referral for surgical closure occurred in 24 (21%) patients, in whom transcatheter closure was considered not appropriate after transthoracic echocardiography. Transoesophageal echocardiography was performed in 45 (39%) patients to assess suitability for closure using the Amplatzer device. Of these, 20 (44% of the group undergoing transoesophageal echocardiography) were considered unsuitable for closure in this fashion. Of these, 8 were referred for surgery and 2 with small defects were considered not to require closure. Patients undergoing closure with the device were older than the group referred for surgical closure, having a median age of 7.8 versus 3.6 years, and stayed for a shorter period in hospital. Those closed using the device stayed for 2 days, as opposed to a median of 5 days, with a range from 4 to 10 days for those undergoing surgical closure. Closure was complete as assessed by echocardiography after follow up of 1–3 months in both groups. There were no recognised complications related to insertion of the device, whereas transient postoperative morbidity occurred in 38% of those closed surgically. Insertion of an Amplatzer device was considered to be appropriate in 37% of patients older than 6 months requiring closure of an atrial septal defect in the oval fossa.
The appropriate timing of intervention in patients with chronic aortic incompetence allows recovery of ventricular function. We sought to determine the optimal timing of the Ross procedure for chronic aortic incompetence in young patients. We retrospectively analysed case notes, and measured pre- and postoperative echocardiographic indexes of left ventricular function, in patients who had undergone the Ross procedure for chronic aortic incompetence. Methods and results: We found 21 patients with preoperative and postoperative data suitable for analysis. Their age at operation ranged from 5.6 to 26 years, with a median of 13.8 years, and the duration of follow-up was from 0.5 to 6.8 years, with a median of 2.4 years. The preoperative left ventricular end-diastolic dimension was converted to a z-score, and this was used as a threshold to divide the population. Using the threshold of a preoperative left ventricular z-score of more than 3 to divide the population did not show any difference in postoperative parameters of left ventricular function. Significant differences were found postoperatively, however, in both the left ventricular z-score and the ratio of left ventricular end-diastolic radius to posterior wall thickness in diastole, with a cutoff preoperative threshold z-score greater than 4. Conclusion: The increase in the ratio of left ventricular end-diastolic radius to the thickness of the posterior wall in diastole would suggest that there is disruption of left ventricular short axis architecture and myocardial contractile function when intervention is postponed. The significantly larger left ventricular dimension at end-diastole, despite the reduction in volume loading post surgery, may also demonstrate irreversible structural changes. Our data would suggest that recovery of left ventricular function is less likely when the left ventricular z-score has reached the value of 4, and that, ideally, intervention should be performed when the z-score approaches or exceeds 3.
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