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Staff training in positive behaviour support (PBS) is a widespread treatment approach for challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability.
To evaluate whether such training is clinically effective in reducing challenging behaviour during routine care (trial registration: NCT01680276).
We carried out a multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial involving 23 community intellectual disability services in England, randomly allocated to manual-assisted staff training in PBS (n = 11) or treatment as usual (TAU, n = 12). Data were collected from 246 adult participants.
No treatment effects were found for the primary outcome (challenging behaviour over 12 months, adjusted mean difference = −2.14, 95% CI: −8.79, 4.51) or secondary outcomes.
Staff training in PBS, as applied in this study, did not reduce challenging behaviour. Further research should tackle implementation issues and endeavour to identify other interventions that can reduce challenging behaviour.
Subglacially erupted Neogene basaltic hyaloclastites in lava-fed deltas in Antarctica were found to contain putative endolithic microborings preserved in fresh glass along hydrous alteration boundaries. The location and existence over the past 6 Ma of these lava deltas has exposed them to successive interglacials and subsequent percolation of the hyaloclastite with marine water. A statistical study of the hyaloclastites has found that endolithic microborings are distinctly more abundant within samples that show evidence for marine alteration, compared with those that have remained in a strictly freshwater (glacial) environment. Additionally, correlation between elevation and the abundance of microborings shows endolithic activity to be more prolific within lower elevation samples, where the hyaloclastites were influenced by marine fluids. Our study strongly suggests that endolithic microborings form more readily in marine-influenced, rather than freshwater environments. Indeed, marine fluids may be a necessary precondition for the microbial activity responsible. Thus, we suggest that the chemistry and origin of alteration fluids are controlling factors on the formation of endolithic microborings in basaltic glass. The study also contributes to the understanding of how endolithic microborings could be used as a biosignature on Mars, where basaltic lavas and aqueous alteration are known to have existed in the past.
Silicon carbide technology is rapidly developing into a production process. This is due to rapid progress in the development of high quality epitaxy and substrates. We report on the development of a resistively heated vertical reactor and it's application to homo-epitaxy and selective area growth. Epitaxial growth of 4H and 6H-SiC requires high temperatures (in excess of 1500°C). In this work we investigate resistive heating which offers advantages in cost, temperature uniformity and power efficiency of heating. However, resistive heating presents major technological challenges. Due to the power efficiencies possible with resistive heating we are able to obtain temperatures in excess of 1750°C. Using this system we have grown “state of the art” 4H and 6H-SiC. At 1580°C our background doping is p-type at a level of 3–5×1015cm−3 as measured by capacitance techniques in agreement with earlier results presented by investigators from Siemens Corp using a similar system. The background concentration increases by about an order of magnitude at 1680°C. This system has also been used to perform experiments with selective area growth of SiC using a graphite mask. This masking technology allows for the growth of SiC in specific regions at elevated temperature in excess of 1600°C.
We report on the status of a long-term program of mapping the velocity structure of the local ISM using ultra-high resolution observations of Call K-line absorption towards nearby B and A-type stars. Absorption components common to the local interstellar cloud (LIC) have been detected in many (but not all) lines-of-sight. Our preliminary results indicate that the local ISM has a complex velocity pattern of inhomogeneous absorption, indicative of a shocked filamentary nature.
The only circumstance under which one can speak accurately about the cost-of-living index is one in which household expenditure patterns do not vary. If relative prices move and households consume goods and services in different proportions, then each household will have its own unique cost-of-living index. This chapter concerns the pattern and extent of these variations in the cost-of-living between different types of household.
To illustrate this, consider the data on a typical necessity: domestic fuels. Figure 4.1 shows the Engel curve for domestic fuel drawn non-parametrically using UK data from the 1992 Family Expenditure Survey (FES). The fuel share of total spending declines as the logarithm of total expenditure increases. This downward-sloping Engel curve is typical of goods that are usually thought of as necessities; poorer households with lower total expenditure spend a greater proportion of that total on necessities like fuel and food than do richer households.
Figure 4.2 shows the price of domestic fuels relative to the all-item retail price index from 1978 to 1992. Figures 4.1 and 4.2 are sufficient to show the existence of systematic differences between the cost-of-living of different households. The relative price movements illustrated will have a greater effect on the cost-of-living of households which consume more fuel than others. Banks, Blundell and Lewbel (1994) show that Engel curves are neither flat nor always linear for a range of commodities using UK FES data.
There are both scientific and social reasons for wanting to go to the stars. On the scientific side, astronomy and planetary science (and very likely the biological sciences also) would benefit tremendously. Just consider the advantages of taking thermometers, magnetometers, mass spectrometers, gravimeters, seismometers, microscopes, and all the other paraphernalia of experimental science, to objects that today can only be observed telescopically across light-years of empty space. On the human side, it would seem that the total number of people who ultimately receive a chance of life, and the survival time of our species itself, would increase enormously if colonization of even a small part of the Galaxy were to prove possible. As pointed out by Shepherd (1952), ‘humanity dispersed over many worlds would appear to be more secure than humanity crowded on one single planet’. At the very least, the resulting cultural diversity would provide an exciting alternative to Fukuyama's (1989) dire predictions for the ‘end of history’ (a point discussed in more detail by Crawford, 1993a).
In this chapter we review some of the propulsion methods that might make it possible to travel interstellar distances on a timescale of decades (i.e. velocities ≥ 0.1c). The concepts discussed are necessarily selective, and the reader who wishes to dig deeper is referred to the extensive bibliography of interstellar travel and communication compiled by Mallove et al. (1980) and updated by Paprotny et al. (1984, 1986, 1987).
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