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The parameters of X-ray radiation and runaway electron beams (RAEBs) generated at long-pulse discharges in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. In the experiments, high-voltage pulses with the rise times of 500 and 50 ns were applied to an interelectrode gap. The gap geometry provided non-uniform distribution of the electric field strength. It was founded that at the voltage pulse rise time of 500 ns and the maximum breakdown voltage Um for 1 cm-length gap, a duration [full width at half maximum (FWHM)] of a RAEB current pulse shrinks to 0.1 ns. A decrease in the breakdown voltage under conditions of a diffuse discharge leads to an increase in the FWHM duration of the electron beam current pulse up to several nanoseconds. It was shown that when the rise time of the voltage pulse is of 500 ns and the diffuse discharge occurs in the gap, the FWHM duration of the X-ray radiation pulse can reach ≈100 ns. It was established that at a pulse-periodic diffuse discharge fed by high-voltage pulses with the rise time of 50 ns, an energy of X-ray quanta and their number increase with increasing breakdown voltage. Wherein the parameter Um/pd is saved.
This paper reports on the properties of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in the air or other gases under atmospheric pressure and gives the analysis of a generation mechanism of supershort avalanche electron beam, as well as methods of such electron beams registration. It is reported that in the air under the pressure of 1 atm, a supershort (<100 ps) avalanche electron beam is formed in the solid angle more than 2π steradian. The electron beam has been obtained behind a 45 µm thick Al-Be foil in SF6 and Xe under the pressure of 2 atm, and in He, under the pressure of about 15 atm. It is shown that in SF6 under the high pressure (>1 atm) duration (full width at half maximum) of supershort avalanche electron beam pulse is about 150 ps.
The properties of an electron beam (e-beam) formed in air under
atmospheric pressure are reported. The nanosecond generators RADAN-303
(two devices) and RADAN-220, producing nanosecond voltage pulses with
amplitude of up to 400 kV and subnanosecond rise time were used in the
experiments. It was shown for the first time that the duration of e-beam
current of gas diode behind the foil does not exceed 0.1 ns. The maximum
amplitude of current of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) behind
the foil was ∼400 A. The data on the influence of various parameters
on e-beam current amplitude measured behind the foil were obtained. An
electron beam with energy less than 60 keV and powerful X-ray radiation
were formed in discharge gap simultaneously with SAEB.
This article reports on experimental studies of subnanosecond
electron beams formed in air under atmospheric pressure. An electron
beam with an amplitude of ∼170 A with a duration at FWHM of
∼0.3 ns has been obtained. Based on beam temporal characteristics
and discharge spatial characteristics, the critical fields were
supposed to be reached at plasma approach to anode. Simultaneously, the
sharp high-energy pulse of e-beam current is generated. Of critical
importance is the cathode type and occurrence on the cathode of plasma
protrusions. It is shown that to get maximum amplitude of the electron
beam in the gas diode, the discharge in the gas diode should be
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