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This study aims to address a gap in the data on cognitive sex differences in persons living with Parkinson disease (PD). There is some evidence that cognitive dysfunction is more severe in male PD, however data on episodic memory and processing speed is incomplete.
One hundred and sixty-seven individuals with a diagnosis of PD were included in this study. Fifty-six of those individuals identified as female. The California Verbal Learning Test 1st edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale 3rd edition were used to evaluate verbal and visuospatial episodic memory and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd edition was used to evaluate processing speed. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to identify sex-specific differences across groups.
Our results show that males with PD performed significantly worse than females in verbal and visuospatial recall as well as a trend for the processing speed task of coding.
Our finding of superior performance among females with PD in verbal episodic memory is consistent with reports in both healthy and PD individuals; however, females outperforming males in measures of visuospatial episodic memory is unique to PD. Cognitive deficits preferentially affecting males appear to be associated with frontal lobe-related function. Therefore, males may represent a disease subgroup more susceptible to disease mechanisms affecting frontal lobe deterioration and cognitive disturbances in PD.
Here, we revise Pietraszewski's model of groups by assigning participant pairs with two triplets, denoting: (1) the type of game that models the interaction, (2) its critical switching point between alternatives (i.e., the game's similarity threshold), and (3) the perception of strategic similarity with the opponent. These triplets provide a set of primitives that accounts for individuals' strategic motivations and observed behaviors.
Impairments in social behavior and cognition, such as the ability to identify others’ emotional state, are important features in schizophrenia. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) and are nonapeptides that influence social cognition and behavior. Previous studies have shown that the administration of intranasal AVP or OXT may affect the ability to recognize facial emotions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a single dose of AVP or OXT on social cognition in patients with schizophrenia. The secondary objective of the study was to test for sex-specific effects of intranasal AVP and OXT administration on social cognition.
In this double-blind, placebo-control, cross-over study, 34 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, received a dose of AVP, OXT or placebo in three separate meetings. Forty-five minutes after administration, subjects performed facial emotion recognition tasks.
There were no significant main effects of hormone administration on the ability to recognize facial emotions between treatment conditions. However, AVP administration resulted in sex-specific differences in emotion recognition. Specifically, in men, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize angry faces. In women, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize sad faces and improved the ability to recognize fearful faces.
These findings indicate that intranasal AVP may affect the recognition of facial emotions differently in men and women. Thus, AVP may increase the differences between men and women on social cognition.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Batn el-Hagar in Sudan has traditionally been characterised as sparsely occupied during the Middle Kingdom Period, with most activity limited to the Egyptian fortresses along the Second Cataract. A new survey programme undertaken by the Uronarti Regional Archaeological Project offers evidence for a more richly occupied landscape.
In 2014/2015, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated two Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs) in Liberia and three in Sierra Leone when the Ebola virus disease epidemic killed over 11,000 people across Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. As Ebola cases declined in Liberia, IMC Psychosocial teams transitioned to working in communities highly affected by the epidemic. This article describes IMC's experience with developing and implementing a community-based mental health and psychosocial group intervention in a rural, severely affected Liberian town – Mawah – where 46 out of approximately 800 community members were infected, 39 of whom died. In this paper, we present how the group intervention, named ‘Social Reconnection Groups’, was developed and implemented. We then discuss intervention strengths, challenges, key lessons learnt and recommendations for how Social Reconnection Groups can be adapted for use in similar settings.
We present a radiocarbon (14C) dataset of tropospheric air CO2, forest soil air CO2, and soil CO2 emissions over the course of one growing season in a Scots pine forest in southern Finland. The CO2 collection for 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis was done with a portable, suitcase-sized system, using molecular sieve cartridges to selectively trap CO2. The piloting measurements aimed to quantify the spatial, seasonal and diurnal changes in the 14C content of CO2 in a northern forest site. The atmospheric samples collected above the canopy showed a large seasonal variation and an 11‰ difference between day and nighttime profiles in August. The higher Δ14C values during night are partly explained by a higher contribution of 14C-elevated soil CO2, accumulating in the nocturnal boundary layer when vertical mixing is weak. We observed significant seasonal trends in Δ14C-CO2 at different soil depths that reflected changes in the shares of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. Also the observed diurnal variation in the Δ14C values in soil CO2 highlighted the changes in the origin of CO2, with root activity decreasing more for the night than decomposition.
Since being pioneered by the U.S. in 1994, simultaneous ascending auctions have become a common mechanism to allocate spectrum rights. Spectrum auctions can involve billions of dollars and companies bidding in these auctions regularly create specialized bidding teams and hire experts in auction theory to develop bidding strategies. Nevertheless, the results can be surprising. In the FCC's auction of Advanced Wireless Service spectrum, price arbitrage failed so dramatically that one new entrant was able to purchase essentially nationwide coverage for about a third (more than a billion dollars) less than what incumbent carriers paid for equivalent spectrum in the same auction. At the same time, the other prospective nationwide entrant exited the auction early and filed a letter with the FCC claiming that the auction rules disadvantaged new entrants!
Results of this sort raise questions for economists. Does the apparent failure of the Law of One Price indicate a fundamental flaw in auction design? If not, why must such auctions be complicated? What are the issues that create strategic complexity for bidders? And to what extent can the tools of economic theory provide insights that facilitate effective bidding in highly complex environments?
We start by explaining some of the reasons why large spectrum auctions are necessarily complicated, and why the Law of One Price can fail so dramatically in a spectrum auction.We emphasize two difficulties facing bidders: exposure problems, which are essentially the problems of bidders wishing to acquire complementary licenses, and budget constraints, which we argue are ubiquitous.We explain why these difficulties make bidding in simultaneous ascending auctions complicated, and also why they would complicate bidding in other auction designs.
Exposure problems create fundamental difficulties for a new entrant seeking to compete head-to-head with incumbent nationwide wireless carriers in the US. Such an entrant needs to acquire adequate bandwidth in every major metropolitan area, but because licenses covering cities or regions are sold individually, the entrant could commit to spending billions of dollars winning spectrum licenses before discovering that the total price for the bundle of licenses it seeks makes the whole entry unaffordable or unprofitable. It could then be left to dispose of extensive holdings at fire-sale prices.
High-fidelity simulation (HFS) is a relatively new teaching modality, which is gaining widespread acceptance in medical education. To date, dozens of studies have proven the usefulness of HFS in improving student, resident, and attending physician performance, with similar results in the allied health fields. Although many studies have analyzed the utility of simulation, few have investigated why it works. A recent study illustrated that permissive failure, leading to simulated mortality, is one HFS method that can improve long-term performance. Critics maintain, however, that the use of simulated death is troubling and excessive. Given the controversy regarding simulated death, we consider the data about the educational value and the emotional harms associated with them, expecting that evidence could be useful in resolving the question. The goal of this narrative review is to explore the argument against simulated mortality and provide educators with an imperative as to why it can be safely utilized.
The structure of a series of lanthanide iron cobalt perovskite oxides, R(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 (R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd), have been investigated. The space group of these compounds was confirmed to be orthorhombic Pnma (No. 62), Z = 4. From Pr to Gd, the lattice parameter a varies from 5.466 35(13) Å to 5.507 10(13) Å, b from 7.7018(2) to 7.561 75(13) Å, c from 5.443 38(10) to 5.292 00(8) Å, and unit-cell volume V from 229.170(9) Å3 to 220.376(9) Å3, respectively. While the trend of V follows the trend of the lanthanide contraction, the lattice parameter “a” increases as the ionic radius r(R3+) decreases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy confirm that Fe and Co are disordered over the octahedral sites. The structure distortion of these compounds is evidenced in the tilt angles θ, ϕ, and ω, which represent rotations of an octahedron about the pseudocubic perovskite p, p, and p axes. All three tilt angles increase across the lanthanide series (for R = Pr to R = Gd: θ increases from 12.3° to 15.2°, ϕ from 7.5° to 15.8°, and ω from 14.4° to 21.7°), indicating a greater octahedral distortion as r(R3+) decreases. The bond valence sum for the sixfold (Fe/Co) site and the eightfold R site of R(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 reveal no significant bond strain. Density Functional Theory calculations for Pr(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 support the disorder of Fe and Co and suggest that this compound to be a narrow band gap semiconductor. XRD patterns of the R(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 samples were submitted to the Powder Diffraction File.
No evidence exists on the association between genocide and the incidence of schizophrenia. This study aims to identify critical periods of exposure to genocide on the risk of schizophrenia.
This population-based study comprised of all subjects born in European nations where the Holocaust occurred from 1928 to 1945, who immigrated to Israel by 1965 and were indexed in the Population Register (N = 113 932). Subjects were followed for schizophrenia disorder in the National Psychiatric Case Registry from 1950 to 2014. The population was disaggregated to compare groups that immigrated before (indirect exposure: n = 8886, 7.8%) or after (direct exposure: n = 105 046, 92.2%) the Nazi or fascist era of persecutions began. The latter group was further disaggregated to examine likely initial prenatal or postnatal genocide exposures. Cox regression modelling was computed to compare the risk of schizophrenia between the groups, adjusting for confounders.
The likely direct group was at a statistically (p < 0.05) greater risk of schizophrenia (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.51) than the indirect group. Also, the likely combined in utero and postnatal, and late postnatal (over age 2 years) exposure subgroups were statistically at greater risk of schizophrenia than the indirect group (p < 0.05). The likely in utero only and early postnatal (up to age 2 years) exposure subgroups compared with the indirect exposure group did not significantly differ. These results were replicated across three sensitivity analyses.
This study showed that genocide exposure elevated the risk of schizophrenia, and identified in utero and postnatal (combined) and late postnatal (age over 2 years) exposures as critical periods of risk.