Dense nanocrystalline CeO2-x. of ∼10 nm grain size exhibits enhanced, PO2-dependent electronic conductivity indicative of intrinsic nonstoichiometric behavior under conditions where coarse-grained counterparts are extrinsic. The enthalpy of reduction is lowered by over 2.4 eV per oxygen vacancy. The nanocrystals also exhibit greatly reduced grain boundary resistance, attributed to grain-size-dependent segregation. We propose that interface doping by selected low energy defect sites dominates the defect and transport properties of nanocrystalline ceria, and possibly other nanocrystalline compounds.