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Listeriosis is a disease that is induced by infection with the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Much is still unknown about the pathogenesis of encephalitic listeriosis. We aimed to identify the contribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), S100, and acute-phase proteins (APPs) in pathogenesis, clinical and preclinical diagnosis of natural cases of encephalitic listeriosis. Of 1,325 Ossimi sheep, 64 were suspected of having listeriosis from 2018 to 2020. Prospective cohort evaluation of clinical and postmortem findings was performed, in addition to bacterial isolation, the measurement of APPs in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of GFAP, S100, and E-cadherin. Infected sheep showed nervous symptoms ranging from neck stretching to complete paralysis. APPs were significantly increased in the CSF of both clinically and preclinically diseased animals; however, serum APPs were only significantly increased in clinically diseased animals. Histopathological evaluation revealed microabscesses, meningoencephalitis, and perivascular cuffing of the brainstem of infected sheep. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed strong expression of GFAP and S100 in necrotic areas and negative expression of E-cadherin. The measurement of CSF APPs could be useful in the preclinical diagnosis of sheep listeriosis. GFAP and S100 proteins could be involved in the pathogenesis of listeriosis; however, E-cadherin does not appear to be involved.
This study aimed to compare the expression of genes regulating follicles development, survival and steroid hormones secretion in oocytes and granulosa cells (GCs) and study the correlation between their expression and follicular fluid (FF) levels of progesterone (P4) in pregnant and non-pregnant camels. In total, 138 ovarian pairs from slaughtered camels were used. Gene expression and hormonal assay were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The obtained results revealed that the number of follicles (3–8 mm) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in the FF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, no significant (P > 0.05) difference was noticed in the oestradiol (E2) level. STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in GCs and significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) mRNA level was significantly lower in GCs and oocytes, and the BMP15 mRNA level was significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in FF was positively correlated with STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels in GCs and negatively correlated with BMP15 mRNA levels in oocytes and FSHR mRNA levels in GCs and oocytes of pregnant camels. It could be concluded that pregnancy-induced variations in oocytes and GC expression of BMP15, IGF1, FSHR, STAR, BCL2, and PTEN genes might be associated with a decrease in the number of follicles and an increase in the FF level of P4.
Malonyl-CoA, a product of acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a metabolic intermediate in lipogenic tissues that include liver and adipose tissue, where it is involved in the de novo fatty acid synthesis and elongation. Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MLYCD, E.C.126.96.36.199), a 55-kDa enzyme catalyses the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide, thus providing a route for disposal of malonyl-CoA from mitochondria and peroxisomes, whereas in the cytosol, the malonyl-CoA pool is regulated by the balance of MLYCD and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activities. So far, 34 cases with different MLYCD gene defects comprising point mutations, stop codons, and frameshift mutations have been reported in the literature. Here, we describe the follow-up of a patient affected by malonic aciduria upon neonatal onset. Molecular analysis showed novel homozygous mutations in the MLYCD gene. Our findings expand the number of reported cases and add a novel variant to the repertoire of MLYCD mutations.
We examine the effect on near-wall turbulence of displacing the apparent, virtual origins perceived by different components of the overlying flow. This mechanism is commonly reported for drag-altering textured surfaces of small size. For the particular case of riblets, Luchini et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 228, 1991, pp. 87–109) proposed that their effect on the overlying flow could be reduced to an offset between the origins perceived by the streamwise and spanwise velocities, with the latter being the origin perceived by turbulence. Later results, particularly in the context of superhydrophobic surfaces, suggest that this effect is not determined by the apparent origins of the tangential velocities alone, but also by the one for the wall-normal velocity. To investigate this, the present paper focuses on direct simulations of turbulent channels imposing different virtual origins for all three velocity components using Robin, slip-like boundary conditions, and also using opposition control. Our simulation results support that the relevant parameter is the offset between the virtual origins perceived by the mean flow and turbulence. When using Robin, slip-like boundary conditions, the virtual origin for the mean flow is determined by the streamwise slip length. Meanwhile, the virtual origin for turbulence results from the combined effect of the wall-normal and spanwise slip lengths. The slip experienced by the streamwise velocity fluctuations, in turn, has a negligible effect on the virtual origin for turbulence, and hence the drag, at least in the regime of drag reduction. This suggests that the origin perceived by the quasi-streamwise vortices, which induce the cross-flow velocities at the surface, is key in determining the virtual origin for turbulence, while that perceived by the near-wall streaks, which are associated with the streamwise velocity fluctuations, plays a secondary role. In this framework, the changes in turbulent quantities typically reported in the flow-control literature are shown to be merely a result of the choice of origin, and are absent when using as origin the one experienced by turbulence. Other than this shift in origin, we demonstrate that turbulence thus remains essentially smooth-wall-like. A simple expression can predict the virtual origin for turbulence in this regime. The effect can also be reproduced a priori by introducing the virtual origins into a smooth-wall eddy-viscosity framework.
Epigenetic modifications have been well documented in autoimmune diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), in particular, have long intrigued scientists in the field of autoimmunity. Owing to its central role in the development of the immune system, microRNA-155 (miR-155) is deeply involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Despite the advancements made in treating SLE, the disease still remains incurable. Therefore, recent attention has been drawn to the manipulation of epigenetics in the development of curative treatments. In fact, it is a widely held view that miRNA-targeted therapy is a new glimmer of hope in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, the duplicity of miRNAs should not be overlooked. A single miRNA can target several mRNAs, and some mRNAs may possess opposing functions. In this review, we highlight the role of miR-155 as a biomarker and review its functions in SLE patients and animal models while discussing possible reasons behind inconsistencies across studies.
Although surgery is the standard treatment for native coarctation in neonates, it carries a high risk of complications. Percutaneous balloon angioplasty may be considered as an alternative treatment. The materials used in the intervention should be selected carefully to reduce complications. We recommended the use of non-compliant balloons in risky babies. They are more effective in the treatment of strick stenosis than compliant balloons.
Early and focal atrophy of medial temporal lobes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) can be measured in several ways.
In 20 patients with probable Alzheimer disease and 29 cognitively normal elderly medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) was measured by volumetry using manual tracing of the hippocampus. The volume of the hippocampus was also rated into five categories expressed as MTA scores ranging from 0 (no atrophy) to 4 (severe atrophy) using a simple and quick semiquantitative method according to the published combined widths or the height of selected three mediotemporal structures.
In comparison to controls, AD patients had significantly smaller volume of either hippocampus (median volume of the hippocampus Hipp dx: 1,81 vs 2,23 p=0,001; Hipp sin: 1,60 vs 2,14 p=0,003; Hipp bilat: 3,40 vs 4,31 p=0,0004). The total MTA score of both sides were significantly higher in AD patients (median 4) than that in controls (median 1) (p=0,0004). Nearly 60 % cognitively normal seniors had the MTA score ≤ 0,5. A similar proportion of patients with AD (65 %) had the MTA score ≥ 2.
Hippocampal loss of tissue can be detected by visual rating and volumetry on MRI in patients with AD. Visual MTA rating is the easier and quicker method than more accurate and time consuming volumetry to support the diagnosis of AD on the brain MR imaging.
The project was supported by CNS MSMT 1M0517 and VZ MZČR MZ0PCP2005.
In this study we sought to explore patterns of neural activity related to the self/other-agency judgment in patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FES) and healthy controls (HC).
Thirty-five FES patients and 35 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls.
Main Outcome Measures
A task-related functional connectivity analysis with the use of independent component analysis (ICA).
ICA revealed that the self/other-agency judgment was dependent upon anti-correlated default mode and central-executive networks (DMN/CEN) dynamic switching. This antagonistic mechanism was substantially impaired in FES during the task.
Time-courses of DMN/CEN activity has been analyzed by means of signal power and spectral coherence. There was statistically significant difference in the variable (anti-correlation index, AI) between FES and HC. AI correlated with self-agency judgment task performance in FES.
This finding suggests that the main site of pathology in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders may originate in higher-order regulatory mechanisms subserving DMN/CEN orchestration.
The study was supported by the IGA Ministry of Health, Czech Republic, grant NT/14291.
This chapter addresses key questions about the basis of cancer susceptibility in African people, as well as the uniqueness of the population genetics and genotype–phenotype relationship that resulted during social transition. Social transition encompasses the change of lifestyle from a rural subsistence one into an urban market-oriented, technology dependent, and predominantly sedentary mode of life, as well as changes that occur in the population genetics as a result of changes from ethnically defined structured populations into panmictic populations of an urban nature, as currently seen in megacities. Although humans passed through several periods of transition in history, the current one is the most profound.
Options with extendable features have many applications in finance and these provide the motivation for this study. The pricing of extendable options when the underlying asset follows a geometric Brownian motion with constant volatility has appeared in the literature. In this paper, we consider holder-extendable call options when the underlying asset follows a mean-reverting stochastic volatility. The option price is expressed in integral forms which have known closed-form characteristic functions. We price these options using a fast Fourier transform, a finite difference method and Monte Carlo simulation, and we determine the efficiency and accuracy of the Fourier method in pricing holder-extendable call options for Heston parameters calibrated from the subprime crisis. We show that the fast Fourier transform reduces the computational time required to produce a range of holder-extendable call option prices by at least an order of magnitude. Numerical results also demonstrate that when the Heston correlation is negative, the Black–Scholes model under-prices in-the-money and over-prices out-of-the-money holder-extendable call options compared with the Heston model, which is analogous to the behaviour for vanilla calls.
Respiratory viral infections are a leading cause of disease worldwide. A variety of respiratory viruses produce infections in humans with effects ranging from asymptomatic to life-treathening. Standard surveillance systems typically only target severe infections (ED outpatients, hospitalisations, deaths) and fail to track asymptomatic or mild infections. Here we performed a large-scale community study across multiple age groups to assess the pathogenicity of 18 respiratory viruses. We enrolled 214 individuals at multiple New York City locations and tested weekly for respiratory viral pathogens, irrespective of symptom status, from fall 2016 to spring 2018. We combined these test results with participant-provided daily records of cold and flu symptoms and used this information to characterise symptom severity by virus and age category. Asymptomatic infection rates exceeded 70% for most viruses, excepting influenza and human metapneumovirus, which produced significantly more severe outcomes. Symptoms were negatively associated with infection frequency, with children displaying the lowest score among age groups. Upper respiratory manifestations were most common for all viruses, whereas systemic effects were less typical. These findings indicate a high burden of asymptomatic respiratory virus infection exists in the general population.
Adenoid hypertrophy is a common cause of upper airway obstruction, and adenoidectomy is one of the most frequently performed operations in children. Topical nasal steroids can act directly on nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue to decrease its reactive inflammatory changes and potentially reduce its size.
To study the light microscopic changes in adenoidal lymphoid tissue after one month of topical steroid use.
Twenty-six children with adenoid hypertrophy grade 3 scheduled for adenoidectomy were randomly divided into two equal groups: one group received mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray (Nasonex) 100 mcg/day for four weeks, and a control group received nasal normal saline 0.9 per cent for four weeks. The removed adenoids were examined histopathologically.
Adenoidal tissue from the mometasone group had less reactive germinal centres and less spongiosis compared to the control group. The latter showed proliferating, reactive, variable sized and shaped lymphoid follicles, with congested blood vessels in the interfollicular areas.
The use of intranasal mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray (Nasonex) for one month reduced adenoidal tissue reactive cellular changes and its vascularity. This is, however, a pilot study; a longer treatment period is needed to assess the effect of treatment on adenoidal size.
Trypanocide resistance remains a huge challenge in the management of animal African trypanosomiasis. Paucity of data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant trypanosomes has greatly hindered optimal veterinary management practices. We use mathematical model predictions to highlight appropriate drug regimens that impede trypanocide resistance development in cattle. We demonstrate that using drugs in decreasing resistance order results in a negligible increase in number of cattle with resistant infection, in contrast to a more pronounced increase from trypanocide use in increasing resistance order. We demonstrate that the lowest levels of trypanocide resistance are achieved with combination therapy. We also show that increasing the number of cattle treated leads to a progressive reduction in the number of cattle with drug resistant infections for treatments of up to 80% of the cattle population for the combination treatment strategy. Our findings provide an initial evidence-based framework on some essential practices that promote optimal use of the handful of trypanocides. We anticipate that our modest forecasts will improve therapeutic outcomes by appropriately informing on the best choice, and combination of drugs that minimize treatment failure rates.
We investigate the nonlinear phase-space dynamics of plane Couette flow and plane Poiseuille flow under the action of opposition control at low Reynolds numbers in domains close to the minimal unit. In Couette flow, the effect of the control is analysed by focussing on a pair of non-trivial equilibrium solutions. It is found that the control only slightly modifies the statistics, turbulent skin friction and phase-space projection of the lower-branch equilibrium solution, which, in this case, is in fact identical to the edge state. On the other hand, the upper-branch equilibrium solution and mean turbulent state are modified considerably when the control is applied. In phase space, they gradually approach the lower-branch equilibrium solution on increasing the control amplitude, and this results in an elevation of the critical Reynolds number at which the equilibrium solutions first occur via a saddle-node bifurcation. It is also found that the upper-branch equilibrium solution is stabilised by the control. In Poiseuille flow, we study an unstable periodic orbit on the edge state and find that it, too, is modified very little by opposition control. We again observe that the turbulent state gradually approaches the edge state in phase space as the control amplitude is increased. In both flows, we find that the control significantly reduces the fluctuating strength of the turbulent state in phase space. However, the reduced distance between the turbulent trajectory and the edge state yields a significant reduction in turbulence lifetimes for both Couette and Poiseuille flow. This demonstrates that opposition control greatly increases the probability of the trajectory escaping from the turbulent state, which takes the form of a chaotic saddle.
Steroids are used in the treatment of acute rheumatic fever with moderate-to-severe carditis. Corticosteroids have several cardiovascular side affects that are more common in adults than in children. Corticosteroid-related bradycardia is a rarely seen side effect. Children with bradycardia following oral corticosteroid use are rarely reported previously. We present a child who developed bradycardia after oral corticosteroid treatment and concurrent Wolff–Parkinson–White pattern.
The relationship between hypertension and epistaxis is controversial and poorly understood. The present research investigated atherosclerosis as a potential risk factor in hypertensive patients with epistaxis.
A prospective study of 141 hypertensive patients with epistaxis was conducted. The laboratory tests included full blood count, lipid profile and coagulation profile. All patients underwent funduscopic examination of the eye and were classified in terms of four retinopathy grades.
There were strong positive correlations between the number of nosebleeds and retinopathy grade and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. There were weak correlations between the number of nosebleeds and blood pressure readings and triglycerides levels. Patients with grade III retinopathy, suggesting atherosclerosis, suffered from more frequent nosebleeds than other patients.
Atherosclerosis is one of the potential risk factors in hypertensive patients with epistaxis. This may have an impact on treatment choices.
The aim was to assess the utility and feasibility of a comprehensive cardiac screening protocol in young athletes before participation in sports. A total of 380 athletes referring before participation in sports, between April, 2014 and April, 2015, were included in this study. The mean age was 12.4 years. A screening protocol has been applied to all, including personal and family history, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, 24-hour rhythm Holter analysis, and treadmill exercise test. The most frequent complaints were chest pain in 19 (5%), dyspnoea in 13 (3.4%), and dizziness and fainting in five patients (1.3%) on exercise. There was sudden death and arrhythmia in 41 patients (10.7%) owing to family history. Heart murmur was present in 20 (5.2%) and hypertension in 10 patients (2.6%) on physical examination. The 12-lead electrocardiography was abnormal in 9 patients (2.4%). The findings of transthoracic echocardiography were insignificant in 47 patients (12.3%) and in five patients (1.3%) a haemodynamically important condition was detected. The 24-hour rhythm Holter analysis was abnormal in six patients (1.5%). There were significant ST changes in two patients (0.5%) on treadmill exercise test with normal findings on myocardial perfusion scans. No significant relation was present between findings of screening protocol and transthoracic echocardiography, 24-hour rhythm Holter analysis, or treadmill exercise test results.
Pre-participation screening in young athletes should consist of a targeted personal history, family history, physical examination, and 12-lead electrocardiography. Other tests should be applied only if the screening indicates the presence of a cardiovascular disease.
Paediatric cardiology is arguably the sub-specialty in which the greatest advances have been made in both disease diagnosis and treatment over the past half a century. Paediatric cardiology emerged as a discipline in the 1930s. Since then, advances in imaging techniques such as echocardiography, angiography, CT, or magnetic resonance and extracorporeal circulation have provided excellent diagnosis and treatment of CHD. The pioneers of paediatric cardiology are more than eponyms, for each used in new and original ways the tools and concepts available in his or her era. This brief overview of the history of paediatric cardiology on stamps begins from William Harvey up to our own time, and includes the milestones in paediatric cardiology.
This paper will bring you on a polemical journey to understand the issues related in conceptualizing bereavement-related depression.
A critical narrative review was carried out to evaluate arguments and controversies surrounding DSM-IV classifications of bereavement exclusion for the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD).
Available studies that are associated with bereavement exclusion criteria, the open trials and treatments with the implications of such conceptualizations and the current removal of the bereavement exclusion from MDD in DSM-5 were addressed.
The review highlights the never-ending polemical journey of conceptualizing any mental disorders, bereavement-related depression included.