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We developed a passive sampler for time-integrated collection and radiocarbon (14C) analysis of soil respiration, a major flux in the global C cycle. It consists of a permanent access well that controls the CO2 uptake rate and an exchangeable molecular sieve CO2 trap. We tested how access well dimensions and environmental conditions affect collected CO2, and optimized cleaning procedures to minimize 14CO2 memory. We also deployed two generations of the sampler in Arctic tundra for up to two years, collecting CO2 over periods of 3 days–2 months, while monitoring soil temperature, volumetric water content, and CO2 concentration. The sampler collects CO2 at a rate proportional to the length of a silicone tubing inlet (7–26 µg CO2-C day-1·m Si-1). With constant sampler dimensions in the field, CO2 recovery is best explained by soil temperature. We retrieved 0.1–5.3 mg C from the 1st and 0.6–13 mg C from the 2nd generation samplers, equivalent to uptake rates of 2–215 (n=17) and 10–247 µg CO2-C day-1 (n=20), respectively. The method blank is 8 ± 6 µg C (mean ± sd, n=8), with a radiocarbon content (fraction modern) ranging from 0.5875–0.6013 (n=2). The sampler enables more continuous investigations of soil C emission sources and is suitable for Arctic environments.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.
The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a potent monoamine-releaser that is widely used as a recreational drug. Preliminary work has supported the potential of MDMA in psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying its putative efficacy are, however, poorly understood. Psychotherapy for PTSD usually requires that patients revisit traumatic memories, and it has been argued that this is easier to do under MDMA. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the effect of MDMA on recollection of favourite and worst autobiographical memories (AMs). Nineteen participants (five females) with previous experience with MDMA performed a blocked AM recollection (AMR) paradigm after ingestion of 100 mg of MDMA-HCl or ascorbic acid (placebo) in a double-blind, repeated-measures design. Memory cues describing participants' AMs were read by them in the scanner. Favourite memories were rated as significantly more vivid, emotionally intense and positive after MDMA than placebo and worst memories were rated as less negative. Functional MRI data from 17 participants showed robust activations to AMs in regions known to be involved in AMR. There was also a significant effect of memory valence: hippocampal regions showed preferential activations to favourite memories and executive regions to worst memories. MDMA augmented activations to favourite memories in the bilateral fusiform gyrus and somatosensory cortex and attenuated activations to worst memories in the left anterior temporal cortex. These findings are consistent with a positive emotional-bias likely mediated by MDMA's pro-monoaminergic pharmacology.
Studies to quantify genetic variation in cassava germplasm, available within the national breeding programmes in Africa, have been limited. Here, we report on the nature and extent of genetic variation that exists within 1401 cassava varieties from seven countries: Tanzania (270 genotypes); Uganda (268); Kenya (234); Rwanda (184); Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; 177); Madagascar (186); Mozambique (82). The vast majority of these genotypes do not exist within a formal germplasm conservation initiative and were derived from farmers' fields and National Agricultural Research Systems breeding programmes. Genotypes were assayed using 26 simple sequence repeat markers. Moderate genetic variation was observed with evidence of a genetic bottleneck in the region. Some differentiation was observed among countries in both cultivars and landraces. Euclidean distance revealed the pivotal position of Tanzanian landraces in the region, and STRUCTURE analysis revealed subtle and fairly complex relationships among cultivars and among landraces and cultivars analysed together. This is likely to reflect original germplasm introductions, gene flow including farmer exchanges, disease pandemics, past breeding programmes and the introduction of cultivars from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Nigeria. Information generated from this study will be useful to justify and guide a regional cassava genetic resource conservation strategy, to identify gaps in cassava diversity in the region and to guide breeding strategies.
InGaN epilayers have been investigated for use in photovoltaic solar cells for the past years. At present, almost all photovoltaic device structures reported have exhibited very low short circuit currents and thus very low solar conversion efficiency. This phenomenon has been attributed to point and extended defect chemistry in InGaN epilayers (e.g. vacancies, misfit dislocations, and V-defects), as well as to spinodal decomposition of the strained InGaN wurtzite lattice system. These defects become more dominant for higher indium concentration InGaN epilayers needed for multijunction photovoltaic device structures. In this work, we will report on the growth and characterization of indium-rich InGaN epilayers that have been grown by novel MOCVD growth technology, including the growth at superatmospheric reactor pressures.
Thermoelectric materials with stable mechanical and chemical properties at high temperature are required for power generation applications. For example, gas temperatures up to 1000°C are normally present in the waste stream of industrial processes and this can be used for electricity generation. There are few semiconductor materials that can operate effectively at these high temperatures. One solution may be the use of wide bandgap materials, and in particular GaN-based materials, which may offer a traditional semiconductor solution for high temperatures thermoelectric power generation. In particular, the ability to both grow GaN-based materials and fabricate them into devices is well understood if their thermoelectric properties are favorable. To investigate the possibility of using III-Nitride and its alloys for thermoelectric applications, we synthesized and characterized room temperature thermoelectric properties of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN and InGaN with different carrier concentrations and indium compositions. The promising value of Seebeck coefficients and power factors of Si-doped GaN and InGaN indicated that these materials are suitable for thermoelectric applications.
Epitaxial ZnO layers heavily doped with Ga (GZO) were grown at 400 °C under metaland oxygen-rich conditions in terms of metal-to-reactive oxygen ratio by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Several atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to characterize the surface morphology and electrical properties of these GZO films in ambient conditions. Local I-V spectra indicate that layers grown under both O-rich and metal-rich conditions are highly resistive until a relatively high voltage sweep (±12 V) is used. After removal of an insulating surface layer, conduction is possible at lower voltages, but eventually the film resistivity increases and it again becomes insulating. In addition to local I-V spectra, local charge injection and subsequent surface potential measurements were used to probe surface charging characteristics. For charge injection experiments, a reverse-bias voltage is applied to the sample while scanning in contact mode with a metallized tip. The resultant change in surface potential due to trapped charge is subsequently observed using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). The layers deposited in a metal-rich environment demonstrate the expected behavior, but the O-rich layers show anomalous negative and positive charging. Finally, surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements using above-bandgap UV illumination were performed. The GZO layers produce SPV values of 0.4 to 0.5 eV, where the films deposited in an O-rich environment have slightly higher SPV values and faster restoration.
In November 1986 a large-scale survey was undertaken in the Gloucestershire town of Stonehouse during an outbreak of meningococcal disease due to group B type 15 subtype Pl. 16 sulphonamide-resistant strains. There were 15 cases in Stonehouse residents during the 4 years from April 1983, an annual attack rate of 56·5 per 100000. Four secondary cases occurred despite rifampicin prophylaxis. The objectives of this community survey were to investigate patterns of meningococcal carriage, transmission and immunity and to determine the proportion of non-secretors of blood group antigens in the Stonehouse population find amongst meningococcal carriers. A total of 6237 subjects participated including 75% of the 6635 Stonehouse residents. Over 97% of the participants provided all three of the requested specimens – nasopharyngeal swabs, saliva and blood samples.
The co-operation between the many organizations involved in the detailed preliminary planning was instrumental in the success of the survey; in particular the value of effective collaboration between Departments of Community Medicine and Microbiology and of the Public Health Laboratory Service network of laboratories in undertaking investigations of this size and type was clearly demonstrated.
Previous analyses of the history of Phanerozoic marine biodiversity suggested that the post-Paleozoic increase observed at the family level and below was caused, in part, by an increase in global provinciality associated with the breakup of Pangea. Efforts to characterize the Phanerozoic history of provinciality, however, have been compromised by interval-to-interval variations in the methods and standards used by researchers to calibrate the number of provinces. With the development of comprehensive, occurrence-based data repositories such as the Paleobiology Database (PaleoDB), it is now possible to analyze directly the degree of global compositional disparity as a function of geographic distance (geo-disparity) and changes thereof throughout the history of marine animal life. Here, we present a protocol for assessing the Phanerozoic history of geo-disparity, and we apply it to stratigraphic bins arrayed throughout the Phanerozoic for which data were accessed from the PaleoDB. Our analyses provide no indication of a secular Phanerozoic increase in geo-disparity. Furthermore, fundamental characteristics of geo-disparity may have changed from era to era in concert with changes to marine venues, although these patterns will require further scrutiny in future investigations.
Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours, which belong to the Ewing sarcoma tumour family, are extremely rare. These tumours are highly aggressive and are known to have a poor prognosis. Immunostaining with at least two neural markers and evidence of an abnormal t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation are hallmark features in this diagnosis. We present the first reported case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour to occur in the tongue.
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 is used as a passivation layer on ZnO substrates before nitride growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This layer is being used to prevent Zn diffusion from the substrate, protect the ZnO surface from H2 back etching, and promote high quality nitride growth. ALD-Al2O3 films were grown at 100°C and then annealed in a furnace at various times at 1100°C for crystallization of the passivation layer. XRD results showed both Al2O3 and ZnAl2O4 phases at different intensities for 50 and 20nm ALD-AlM2O3 films. In addition, the InGaN layer has been successfully grown on the passivated ZnO substrate. Findings show that a short annealing time for the ALD-Al2O3 layer will be optimal for InGaN growth.
Transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is influenced by many different host, vector and parasite factors. Here we conducted a field study at Mbita, an area of endemic malaria in Western Kenya, to test whether parasite transmission to mosquitoes is influenced by the severity of malaria infection in its human host at the time when gametocytes, the transmission forms, are present in the peripheral blood. We examined the infectivity of 81 Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers to mosquitoes. Of these, 21 were patients with fever and other malaria-related symptoms, and 60 were recruited among apparently healthy volunteers. Laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae s.s. (local strain) were experimentally infected with blood from these gametocyte carriers by membrane-feeding. The severity of the clinical symptoms was greater in febrile patients. These symptomatic patients had higher asexual parasitaemia and lower gametocyte densities (P=0·05) than healthy volunteers. Ookinete development occurred in only 6 out of the 21 symptomatic patients, of which only 33·3% successfully yielded oocysts. The oocyst prevalence was only 0·6% in the 546 mosquitoes that were fed on blood from this symptomatic group, with mean oocyst intensity of 0·2 (range 0–2) oocysts per mosquito. In contrast, a higher proportion (76·7%) of healthy gametocyte carriers yielded ookinetes, generating an oocyst rate of 12% in the 1332 mosquitoes that fed on them (mean intensity of 6·3, range: 1–105 oocysts per mosquito). Statistical analysis indicated that the increased infectivity of asymptomatic gametocyte carriers was not simply due to their greater gametocyte abundance, but also to the higher level of infectivity of their gametocytes, possibly due to lower parasite mortality within mosquitoes fed on blood from healthy hosts. These results suggest that blood factors and/or conditions correlated with illness reduce P. falciparum gametocyte infectivity.
Intersubband transitions (ISTs) in GaN/AlxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were investigated using an optical absorption technique. Several samples were grown by either Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) or Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) and were investigated using both normal incident and waveguide configurations. The waveguides were fabricated by dicing each sample into 2 mm wide by 5 mm long pieces with two facets polished at 45 degrees with respect to the surface such that light propagates across the sample's width. Preliminary results indicate that ISTs are observable in Si-doped and undoped GaN/AlxGa1-xN MQWs. The source of these charge carriers in the undoped samples are explained as being due to the spontaneous polarization effect which exists at the GaN/AlxGa1-xN interfaces where the GaN surface has Ga-polarity. Scanning Electron Microscopy indicates that a sample containing what appeared to be a large number of cracks and or hexagonal voids lacked the presence of ISTs.
This paper investigates the optical properties of bulk and epitaxial ZnO layers. High quality undoped and doped bulk ZnO crystals have been produced by melt growth techniques in addition to ZnO thin films grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on silicon, sapphire and the bulk ZnO substrates. This work focuses on investigating the suitability of bulk and epitaxial ZnO for waveguide applications using various spectroscopic techniques. The photoluminescence showed the dominance of strong and narrow band due to the band edge emissions for undoped ZnO. Ultraviolet-visible transmission data revealed the variation of the bandgap with different doping elements. Raman spectra showed a narrow and strong peak, corresponding to the E2 mode at 438 cm-1, characteristic of the ZnO crystallinity. A broad 2LO peak appeared near 1150 cm-1 due to the coupling between LO phonons and free carriers. A clear variation in refractive index with doping was observed by spectroscopic ellipsometery suggesting that ZnO could be used for waveguide applications.
In this work, we report on the material properties of ZnO doped with Mn, Co, and Fe grown by a modified melt growth technique. X-ray diffraction measurements show that transition metals can be incorporated on Zn sites; an increase in the lattice parameter is apparent with increasing doping level. UV-visible transmission and reflectance measurements have also been performed. Absorption bands in the visible regime are distinctive to the individual transition metal dopants. A noticeable shift in the optical band edge has been observed from these Mn/Co/Fe-doped ZnO crystals in comparison with the undoped material. ZnO may also provide a suitable platform for the incorporation of transition metal elements through high temperature near equilibrium growth processes; however, further work is required in order to employ these materials for spintronic applications.