A regional (Oceania) core collection for taro germplasm has been developed based on phenotypic and molecular characterization. In total, 2199 accessions of taro germplasm have been collected by TaroGen (Taro Genetic Resources: Conservation and Utilisation) from 10 countries in Oceania: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Palau, Niue, Tonga, Cook Islands and Samoa. Our objective was to select 10% from each country to contribute to a regional core. The larger collections from Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and New Caledonia were analysed based on phenotypic characters, and a diverse subset representing 20% of these collections was fingerprinted. A diverse 20% subsample was also taken from the Solomon Islands. All accessions from the other six countries were fingerprinted. In total, 515 accessions were genotyped (23.4% overall) using taro specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. DNA fingerprint data showed that great allelic diversity existed in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Interestingly, rare alleles were identified in taros from the Solomon Islands province of Choiseul which were not observed in any of the other collections. Overall, 211 accessions were recommended for inclusion in the final regional core collection based on the phenotypic and molecular characterization.