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This study aimed to investigate petrous apex pneumatisation in children, as an understanding of petrous apex pneumatisation is useful in the diagnosis and surgical management of middle-ear disease.
Computed tomography head scans from 1700 patients aged 0–16 years were assessed. Petrous apex bone and air cell volumes were calculated to determine the degree of petrous apex pneumatisation. Scans were analysed for communicating tracts between the middle ear and petrous apex.
Petrous apex pneumatisation was found in 21.0 per cent of patients. Positive relationships were found between age and petrous apex pneumatisation prevalence (rs = 0.990, p < 0.001), and between age and degree of petrous apex pneumatisation (rs = 0.319, p < 0.001). Petrous apex pneumatisation prevalence did not significantly differ by sex or ethnicity. Communicating tracts were identified in 84.3 per cent of patients with petrous apex pneumatisation, most commonly anterior to the otic capsule.
In children, the prevalence and degree of petrous apex pneumatisation increases with age, but prevalence is not affected by sex or ethnicity.
To ascertain in what proportion the vertical segment of the intratemporal carotid artery on its medial aspect anatomically separates the peri-tubal cells and Eustachian tube from the remainder of the pneumatised spaces of the temporal bone.
A retrospective review was conducted of 222 adult and 29 paediatric consecutive computed tomography scans of petrous temporal bones from a single tertiary referral centre.
In 96 per cent of temporal bones, the carotid artery formed a lateral barrier (with no communication pathway medially) between air spaces anterior and posterior to it. This equated to 94 per cent when chronic otitis media cases were excluded.
The degree of separation of middle-ear air cells from the Eustachian tube or nasopharynx, and the relevant anatomy, are reviewed. This knowledge helps to optimise the outcome of subtotal petrosectomy and blind sac closure. The frequency and process of pneumatisation of the petrous apex, and its connections with the middle ear, have been radiologically confirmed.
This study aimed to review the current advances in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome and to ascertain its aetiology, whether dehiscence size correlates with symptoms, signs and investigation results, the best investigations, and its surgical management.
A literature search using the key words ‘superior semicircular canal dehiscence’ was performed using the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database and the Embase, Health Management Information Consortium, Medline, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, Cinahl and Health Business Elite databases for the period January 2009 to May 2014. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective case series, case reports, and observational studies were included.
Of the 205 papers identified, 35 were considered relevant.
The aetiology of superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome is unclear. Dehiscence size significantly affects the air–bone gap and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential thresholds. Computed tomography evaluation has a high false positive rate. The middle cranial fossa approach is the surgical standard for treating this syndrome; however, the transmastoid approach is gaining popularity.
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