To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Network approach has been applied to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify network structures of remitters and non-remitters in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) at baseline and the 6-month follow-up.
Participants (n = 252) from the Korean Early Psychosis Study (KEPS) were enrolled. They were classified as remitters or non-remitters using Andreasen's criteria. We estimated network structure with 10 symptoms (three symptoms from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, one depressive symptom, and six symptoms related to schema and rumination) as nodes using a Gaussian graphical model. Global and local network metrics were compared within and between the networks over time.
Global network metrics did not differ between the remitters and non-remitters at baseline or 6 months. However, the network structure and nodal strengths associated with positive-self and positive-others scores changed significantly in the remitters over time. Unique central symptoms for remitters and non-remitters were cognitive brooding and negative-self, respectively. The correlation stability coefficients for nodal strength were within the acceptable range.
Our findings indicate that network structure and some nodal strengths were more flexible in remitters. Negative-self could be an important target for therapeutic intervention.
There is limited evidence on the interaction by alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH1B) (rs1229984) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) (rs671) regarding the associations of alcohol and a methyl diet (low folate and high alcohol intake) with cancer risk, partly because of rare polymorphisms in Western populations.
In a case–control study, we estimated the ORs and 95 % CIs to evaluate the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes with colorectal cancer (CRC) and the joint association between methyl diets and ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with CRC risk using logistic regression models.
A hospital-based case–control study.
In total, 1001 CRC cases and 899 cancer-free controls admitted to two university hospitals.
We found that alcohol intake increased the risk of CRC; OR (95 % CI) was 2·02 (1·41, 2·87) for ≥60 g/d drinkers compared with non-drinkers (Ptrend < 0·001). The associations for two polymorphisms with CRC were not statistically significant. However, we found a potential interaction of ALDH2 with methyl diets and CRC. We observed a 9·08-fold (95 % CI 1·93, 42·60) higher risk of CRC for low-methyl diets compared with high-methyl diets among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2, but the association was not apparent among those with ALDH2 GG (Pinteraction = 0·02).
Our data support the evidence that gene–methyl diet interactions may be involved in CRC risk in East Asian populations, showing that a low-methyl diet increased the risk of CRC among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) share common risk factors as poor dietary intakes, especially among low-income populations worldwide. However, the diet-related health burden by country income levels remains unclear. We assessed the current prevalence of NCDs and the association between selected dietary factors and NCDs by income levels. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization, and World Bank, and 151 countries were included in the analysis weighted by the total population size. Linear regression was used to find the association between metabolic risk factors and health-related behaviors by income levels. The prevalence of raised fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol, overweight, and obesity were lowest in lower and middle income countries, but prevalence of raised blood pressure and NCD deaths under age 70 were highest in lower and middle income countries (p for trend < 0.001). The proportion of carbohydrates and alcohol consumer were highest, and vegetable, milk supply, insufficient activity were lowest in lower and middle income countries. In high income countries, raised fasting blood glucose level were negatively associated with vegetable consumption (β = -0⋅05 CI [-0⋅08, -0⋅02]), and alcohol consumption, fat intake (7⋅94 [1⋅82, 14⋅06]), and sugar and sweetener supply (0⋅04 [0⋅01, 0⋅07]) were associated with overweight. In low income countries, overweight was associated with vegetable oil (0⋅03 [0⋅00, 0⋅05]),. In this study, different relationship between diets and NCDs trends were found across country income levels. Appropriate health policies for each group of countries by income are needed to solve the increasing challenges of NCDs.
This work was carried out with the support of “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ PJ01317001)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
Low rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were identified as a shortcoming in the “chain of survival” for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care in the Korean city of Ansan. This study sought to evaluate the effect of an initiative to increase bystander CPR and quality of out-of-hospital resuscitation on outcome from OHCA. The post-intervention data were used to determine the next quality improvement (QI) target as part of the “Plan-Do-Study-Act” (PDSA) model for QI.
The study hypothesis was that bystander CPR, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and survival to discharge after OHCA would increase in the post-intervention period.
This was a retrospective pre/post study. The data from the pre-intervention period were abstracted from 2008–2011 and the post-intervention period from 2012–2013. The effect of the intervention on the odds of ROSC and survival to hospital discharge was determined using a generalized estimating equation to account for confounders and the effect of clustering within medical centers. The analysis was then used to identify other factors associated with outcomes to determine the next targets for intervention in the chain of survival for cardiac arrest in this community.
Rates of documented bystander CPR increased from 13% in the pre-intervention period to 37% in the post-intervention period. The overall rate of ROSC decreased from 18.4% to 14.3% (risk difference −4.1%; 95% CI, −7.1%–1.0%), whereas survival to hospital discharge increased from 3.9% to 5.0% (risk difference 1.1%; 95% CI, −1.8%–3.8%), and survival with good neurologic outcome increased from 0.8% to 1.6% (risk difference 0.8%; 95% CI, −0.8%–2.4%). In multivariable analyses, there was no association between the intervention and the rate of ROSC or survival to hospital discharge. The designated level of the treating hospital was a significant predictor of both survival and ROSC.
In this case study, there were no observed improvements in outcomes from OHCA after the targeted intervention to improve out-of-hospital CPR. However, utilizing the PDSA model for QI, the designated level of the treating hospital was found to be a significant predictor of survival in the post-period, identifying the next target for intervention.
We investigated the extent of delays in the response time of emergency medical services (EMS) as an impact of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) in the same area.
We defined an MCI case as an event that resulted in 6 or more patients being transported by EMS, and prehospital response time as the time from the call to arrival at the scene. We matched patients before and after MCIs by dividing them into categories of 3 hours before, 0-1 hour after, 1-2 hours after, and 2-3 hours after the MCIs. We compared prehospital response times using multiple linear regression.
A total of 33,276 EMS-treated patients were matched. The prehospital response time for the category of 3 hours before the MCIs was 8.8 minutes (SD: 8.2), treated as the reference, whereas that for the category of 0-1 hour after the MCI was 11.3 minutes (P<0.01). The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that prehospital response time increased by 2.5 minutes (95% CI: 2.3-2.8) during the first hour and by 0.3 minutes (95% CI: 0.1-0.6) during the second hour after MCIs.
There were significant delays in the prehospital response time for emergency patients after MCIs, and it lasted for 2 hours as the spillover effect. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:94–100)
To trace past changes in flooding frequency, we investigated fluvial sediments in the middle reach of the Nakdong River, South Korea. Sediments with larger grain size, lower total organic carbon percentage, and depleted δ13C values in the recovered sediment cores were interpreted as periods of more frequent flooding. Patterns of decreased long-term flooding frequency and vegetation changes during the early to late Holocene were similar to the decreasing regional summer monsoon intensity. Multicentennial frequent flooding periods in the study area (2900–3400 cal yr BP, 3600–3900 cal yr BP, 4600–5300 cal yr BP, and 5800–6400 cal yr BP) corresponded to stronger El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity periods. Based on previous studies showing that high-frequency tropical typhoon-driven coastal inundation along the western coast of Japan during the middle to late Holocene was coupled with stronger ENSO activity, it is likely that the observed centennial-to-millennial-scale flood frequency change in South Korea was influenced mainly by changes in the genesis and tracks of tropical typhoons at centennial-to-millennial time scales. This suggests that the centennial-to-millennial-scale hydrologic changes in East Asia were linked to the remote atmospheric-oceanic circulation changes represented by an ENSO-like pattern.
In 2011 the Black-faced Spoonbill Platalea minor census recorded a 22% drop in numbers from 2010, particularly at the known large coastal wintering sites. During this period, we discovered two new inland wintering sites for the species using satellite telemetry data, one located in China, where the individual followed the Yangtze river as far as Wuhan (500 km inland), and the other across the Vietnam-Cambodia border (70–200 km inland). Long periods of concentrated use of various freshwater habitats were in evidence for these two tagged individuals (China: 79 days, Vietnam/Cambodia: 91 Days) and in the latter case visual confirmation indicated a larger group of at least five individuals. The importance and potential of inland freshwater environments is highlighted towards the further conservation of the recovering population.
The electroluminescent characteristics of blue organic light-emitting diodes(BOLEDs) were fabricated with single emitting layer using host-dopant system and doped charge carrier transport layers. The structure of the high efficiency BOLED device was; NPB(600Å)/NPB:BCzVBi-7%(100Å)/ADN:BCzVBi-7%(300Å)/BAlq:BCzVBi-7%(100Å)/BAlq(200Å)/Liq(20Å)/Al(1200Å) to optimize probability of exciton generation by doping BCzVBi in emitting layer and hole/electron transport layers(HTL/ETL) as well. Luminance and luminous efficiency of BOLED doped BCzVBi in EML and HTL/ETL improved from 10090 cd/m2 at 9.5V and 6.44 cd/A at 4.0V to 13190 cd/m2 at 9.5V and 7.64 cd/A at 4.0V about 30% and 18%, respectively, with CIE coordinates of (0.14, 0.17) comparing to BOLED doped BCzVBi in EML only
In this study, we fabricated blue OLEDs with quantum well structure (QWS) using four different blue emissive materials such as DPVBi, ADN and DPASN, and BAlq as QWS material. Conventional QWS blue OLEDs used to be composed of emissive layer and charge blocking layer with lower HOMO-LUMO energy level, but we designed triple emitting layer for more significant hole-electron recombination in EML and a wider region of exciton generation as forming QWS spontaneously. The structure of triple emitting layered blue OLED is ITO / NPB(700 Å) / X(100 Å) / BAlq(100 Å) /X (100 Å) / Bphen(300 Å) / Liq(20 Å) / Al(1200 Å) (X= DPVBi, ADN, DPASN). HOMO-LUMO energy levels of DPVBi, ADN, DPASN and BAlq were 2.8-5.9, 2.6-5.6, 2.3-5.2 and 2.9-5.9 eV, respectively. The maximum luminous efficiency was 5.32 cd/A at 3.5 V in a blue OLED with DPASN / BAlq / DPASN QWS.
We have carried out simultaneous 22 GHz H2O and 44 GHz Class I CH3OH maser line surveys of more than 1500 intermediate- and high-mass YSOs in the Galaxy using newly-constructed KVN 21-m telescopes. As the central (proto)stars evolve, the detection rates of the two masers rapidly decrease for intermediate-mass YSOs while the rates increase for high-mass YSOs. These results suggest that the occurrence of the two masers is closely related both to the evolutionary stage of the central objects and to the circumstellar environments. CH3OH masers always have very similar velocities (<10 km s−1) to the natal dense cores, whereas H2O masers often have significantly different velocities. The isotropic luminosities of both masers are well correlated with the bolometric luminosities of the central (proto)stars.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry ‘foreign’ DNA and are clones when all the donor cells are genetically identical. However, in canines, it is difficult to obtain enough mature oocytes for successful SCNT due to the very low efficiency of in vitro oocyte maturation in this species that hinders canine transgenic cloning. One solution is to use oocytes from a different species or even a different genus, such as bovine oocytes, that can be matured easily in vitro. Accordingly, the aim of this study was: (1) to establish a canine fetal fibroblast line transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene; and (2) to investigate in vitro embryonic development of canine cloned embryos derived from transgenic and non-transgenic cell lines using bovine in vitro matured oocytes. Canine fetal fibroblasts were transfected with constructs containing the GFP and puromycin resistance genes using FuGENE 6®. Viability levels of these cells were determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) embryos from normal or transfected cells were produced and cultured in vitro. The MTT measurement of GFP-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.25) was not significantly different from non-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.35). There was no difference between transgenic iSCNT versus non-transgenic iSCNT embryos in terms of fusion rates (73.1% and 75.7%, respectively), cleavage rates (69.7% vs. 73.8%) and development to the 8–16-cell stage (40.1% vs. 42.7%). Embryos derived from the transfected cells completely expressed GFP at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8–16-cell stages without mosaicism. In summary, our results demonstrated that, following successful isolation of canine transgenic cells, iSCNT embryos developed to early pre-implantation stages in vitro, showing stable GFP expression. These canine–bovine iSCNT embryos can be used for further in vitro analysis of canine transgenic cells and will contribute to the production of various transgenic dogs for use as specific human disease models.
Stream development can generate environmental changes that impact fish communities. In temperate streams, the distribution of fish species is associated with environmental gradients. To analyze the relevant factors, large-scale exploration is required. Thus, to evaluate the distribution patterns of fish in Korea, sampling was conducted on a national scale at 720 sites over a 6-week period in 2009. A total of 124 fish species in 27 families were identified; Zacco platypus and Zacco koreanus of the Cyprinidae were the dominant and subdominant species, respectively. Of the species found, 46 (37.1%) were endemic and 4 (3.2%) exotic; of the latter, Micropterus salmoides and Lepomis macrochirus were widely distributed. Upon canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), both altitude and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were highly correlated with CCA axes 1 and 2, respectively. This explained 62.5% of the species–environment relationship. Altitude and stream order were longitudinally related to species distribution. The numbers of both total and endemic species gradually increased as streams grew in size to the fourth–fifth-order, and decreased in sixth-order, streams. Overall, fish communities were stable throughout the entire watershed, whereas some species showed site-specific occurrence patterns due to the paleogeomorphological characteristics of Korean peninsula. However, various anthropogenic activities may negatively affect fish communities. Therefore, both short- and long-term sustainable management strategies are required to conserve native fish fauna.
We investigated the pressure dependence of the inductive coupled plasma (ICP) oxidation on the electrical characteristics of the thin oxide films. Activation energies and electron temperatures with different pressures were estimated. To demonstrate the pressure effect on the plasma oxide quality, simple N type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors were fabricated and investigated in a few electrical properties. At higher pressure than 200mTorr, plasma oxide has a slightly higher on-current and a lower interfacial trap density. The on-current gain seems to be related to the field mobility increase and the lower defective interface to the electron temperature during oxidation.
We evaluate Vickers hardness and true instrumented indentation test (IIT) hardness of 24 metals over a wide range of mechanical properties using just IIT parameters by taking into account the real contact morphology beneath the Vickers indenter. Correlating the conventional Vickers hardness, indentation contact morphology, and IIT parameters for the 24 metals reveals relationships between contact depths and apparent material properties. We report the conventional Vickers and true IIT hardnesses measured only from IIT contact depths; these agree well with directly measured hardnesses within ±6% for Vickers hardness and ±10% for true IIT hardness.
The sap of Acer mono has been called ‘bone-benefit-water’ in Korea because of its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap of A. mono is 37·5 times higher than commercial spring water. In the current study, we examined whether A. mono sap could improve or prevent osteoporosis-like symptoms in a mouse model. Male mice (3 weeks old) were fed a low-calcium diet supplemented with 25, 50 or 100 % A. mono sap, commercial spring water or a high calcium-containing solution as a beverage for 7 weeks. There were no differences in weekly weight gain and food intake among all the groups. Mice that were given a low-calcium diet supplemented with commercial spring water developed osteoporosis-like symptoms. To assess the effect of sap on osteoporosis-like symptoms, we examined serum calcium concentration, and femur density and length, and carried out a histological examination. Serum calcium levels were significantly lower in mice that received a low-calcium diet supplemented with commercial spring water (the negative control group), and in the 25 % sap group compared to mice fed a normal diet, but were normal in the 50 and 100 % sap and high-calcium solution groups. Femur density and length were significantly reduced in the negative control and 25 % sap groups. These results indicate that a 50 % sap solution can mitigate osteoporosis-like symptoms induced by a low-calcium diet. We also examined the regulation of expression of calcium-processing genes in the duodenum and kidney. Duodenal TRPV6 and renal calbindin-D9k were up-regulated dose-dependently by sap, and the levels of these factors were higher than those attained in the spring water-treated control. The results demonstrate that the sap of A. mono ameliorates the low bone density induced by a low-calcium diet, most likely by increasing calcium ion absorption.
Whereas there are numerous reports in the literature relating the impact of maternal nutritional status on subsequent birth outcome, much less is known about the long-term impact on infant growth after birth. Therefore, we conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the association of maternal micronutrient status (vitamins A, C and E, folate) and oxidative stress status in pregnancy with infant growth during the first year of life.
Prospective cohort study.
Outpatient clinic of obstetrics, Ewha Womans University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
Subjects and methods
Two groups were constructed for this study – the Ewha pregnancy cohort (n = 677) and the infant growth cohort comprising follow-up live newborns of all the recruited pregnant women (n = 317). Maternal serum vitamin and urinary oxidative stress levels were collected and infant weights and heights were measured at birth and at 6 and 12 months after birth.
Division of the subjects into folate-deficient and normal groups revealed that infant weight and height at 0, 6 and 12 months were adversely affected by folate deficiency. High maternal vitamin C was associated with increased infant weight and height at birth and after birth.
Our findings indicate the importance of preventing folate deficiency and supplementing vitamin C during pregnancy.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between preeclampsia and eNOS, DDAH, and VEGF gene polymorphisms, and also to search for a possible association between haplotypes in eNOS, DDHA, and VEGF genes and the risk for preeclampsia. DNA was extracted from whole blood of 223 preeclampsia patients and 237 healthy pregnant women. The genotypes were analyzed by a single base primer extension assay using a SNaPShot assay kit. Results were analyzed with the Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and Logistic regression analysis. Haplotype analyses were performed using Haploview 3.2 version. There were no significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies of eNOS, DDAH, and VEGF gene polymorphisms between preeclampsia patients and controls. No increase in the risk of preeclampsia for those genes was observed under any model of inheritance and there were no statistically significant associations between any haplotypes and preeclampsia risk. Polymorphisms in eNOS, DDAH, and VEGF gene do not seem to be risk factors for preeclampsia.
Ceria doped-yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, YAG:Ce), which is known as an efficient phosphor, have been widely used in optical display and lighting applications. Improved wet chemical method, sol-gel, has been studied, since conventional solid-state reaction requires a high-temperature and prolonged heating to obtain the pure phase. However, there has been little information, such as on pre-firing temperature, concerning high-quality powder formed by the wet chemical process. In this work, YAG:Ce was synthesized with a salted sol-gel process in which a water solution of inorganic salt with citric acid as additive. Transparent starting sol was pre-fired at 200 ˜ 300°C for 2 hrs in air and final annealing to obtain phase-pure YAG:Ce particles was performed at 1100°C for 2 hrs in argon. The effects of pre-firing temperatures on the crystal structure, morphology and luminescence were investigated. Effects of residual organics in the pre-fired gel on the properties of finally annealed phosphors will be fully discussed on the basis of the results of thermal analysis and chemical structure.