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The “Fast track” protocol is an early extubation strategy to reduce ventilator-associated complications and induce early recovery after open-heart surgery. This study compared clinical outcomes between operating room extubation and ICU extubation after open-heart surgery in patients with CHD.
We retrospectively reviewed 215 patients who underwent open-heart surgery for CHDs under the scheduled “Fast track” protocol between September 2016 and April 2022. The clinical endpoints were post-operative complications, including bleeding, respiratory and neurological complications, and hospital/ICU stays.
The patients were divided into operating room extubation (group O, n = 124) and ICU extubation (group I, n=91) groups. The most frequently performed procedures were patch closures of the atrial septal (107/215, 49.8%) and ventricular septal (89/215, 41.4%) defects. There were no significant differences in major post-operative complications or ICU and hospital stay duration between the two groups; however, patients in group I showed longer mechanical ventilatory support (0.0 min vs. 59.0 min (interquartile range: 17.0–169.0), p < 0.001). Patients in Group O showed higher initial lactate levels (3.2 ± 1.7 mg/dL versus 2.5 ± 2.0 mg/dL, p = 0.007) and more frequently used additional sedatives and opioid analgesics (33.1% versus 19.8%, p = 0.031).
Extubation in the operating room was not beneficial for patients during post-operative ICU or hospital stay. Early extubation in the ICU resulted in more stable hemodynamics in the immediate post-operative period and required less use of sedatives and analgesics.
The transnational circulation of persistent racial types that are attached to Asian/American women have shaped Asian-focused narratives and roles on Broadway. The King and I (2015) and KPOP (2022) exemplify Asian/American women’s performative labor and the tensions embedded in and disruptive of the contested political arena of Broadway musical theatre.
To avoid rhythm disturbance, sutures for ventricular septal defect closure have been traditionally placed 2∼5 mm or more away from the edge of the ventricular septal defect. However, the traditional suturing method appears to induce right bundle branch block and tricuspid valve regurgitation after ventricular septal defect closure more than our alternative technique, shallow suturing just at the edge of the ventricular septal defect (shallower bites at the postero-inferior margin). We aimed to verify our clinical experience of perimembranous ventricular septal defect repair.
The alternative shallow suturing method has been applied since 2003 at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 556 isolated perimembranous ventricular septal defect patients who underwent surgical closure from 2000 to 2019. We investigated the postoperative occurrence of right bundle branch block or progression of tricuspid regurgitation and analysed risk factors for right bundle branch block and tricuspid regurgitation.
Traditional suturing method (Group T) was used in 374 cases (66.8%), and alternative suturing method (Group A) was used in 186 cases (33.2%). The right bundle branch block occurred more frequently in Group T (39.6%) than in Group A (14.9%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, Group T and patch material were significant risk factors for late right bundle branch block. More patients with progression of tricuspid regurgitation were found in Group T.
Shallow suturing just at the edge of the ventricular septal defect may reduce the rate of right bundle branch block occurrence and tricuspid regurgitation progression without other complications.
The invention of the MP3 and its distribution on the internet affected the South Korean music industry in multifarious ways, instigating a sharp decrease in CD sales but also contributing to K-pop’s shift from audio to visual culture. Because many scholars contend that K-pop is driven by the visual, academic analysis has been dominated by discussions of visual aesthetics; other aspects of K-pop, especially its use of acoustic techniques and vocalization, have largely been neglected. Drawing on R. Murray Schafer’s definition of “soundscape” – where sound is the combination of layers of culture, place, acoustic space, and technology – this chapter provides an overview of K-pop’s soundscapes over the past thirty years. The industry has responded to new recording technologies and new media, which are linked to specific aspects of South Korean time and space. The mediation of sound in studio recording booths, where K-pop singers give literal voice to their self-expression, has become an integral component of the sonic form. In addition to the vocal styles of K-pop artists, the chapter addresses the auditory practices of recording artists ranging from singer-songwriters to K-pop boy bands as well as the interventions of sound engineers and producers in the recording process.
There has been increasing evidence of hormonal changes during reproductive events that lead to mood changes. However, studies on the severity of psychological problems according to the menopausal stage are limited. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between menopausal stages, depression and suicidality.
A total of 45 177 women who underwent regular health check-ups between 2015 and 2018 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were included. Participants were stratified into four groups (pre-menopause, early transition, late transition and post-menopause) based on the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop Criteria. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CESD) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the degree of depressive symptoms was classified as moderate (CESD score 16–24) or severe (CESD score ⩾ 25). To measure suicide risk, we administered questionnaires related to suicidal ideation.
Overall, the prevalence of CESD scores of 16–24 and ⩾ 25 was 7.6 and 2.8%, respectively. Menopausal stages were positively associated with depressive symptoms in a dose-dependent manner. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs, 95% confidence intervals) for CESD scores of 16–24 comparing the stages of the early menopausal transition (MT), late MT and post-menopause to pre-menopause was 1.28 (1.16–1.42), 1.21 (1.05–1.38) and 1.58 (1.36–1.84), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted PRs for CESD scores ⩾ 25 comparing the stages of the early MT, late MT and post-menopause to pre-menopause were 1.31 (1.11–1.55), 1.39 (1.12–1.72), 1.86 (1.47–2.37), respectively. In addition, the multivariable-adjusted PRs for suicidal ideation comparing the early MT, late MT and post-menopause stages to the pre-menopause stage were 1.24 (1.12–1.38), 1.07 (0.93–1.24) and 1.46 (1.25–1.70) (p for trend <0.001), respectively.
These findings indicate that the prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation increases with advancing menopausal stage, even pre-menopause.
It has been suggested that psychosocial factors are related to survival time of inpatients with cancer. However, there are not many studies examining the relationship between spiritual well-being (SWB) and survival time among countries. This study investigated the relationship between SWB and survival time among three East Asian countries.
This international multicenter cohort study is a secondary analysis involving newly admitted inpatients with advanced cancer in palliative care units in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. SWB was measured using the Integrated Palliative Outcome Scale (IPOS) at admission. We performed multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify independent prognostic factors.
A total of 2,638 patients treated at 37 palliative care units from January 2017 to September 2018 were analyzed. The median survival time was 18.0 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.5–19.5) in Japan, 23.0 days (95% CI 19.9–26.1) in Korea, and 15.0 days (95% CI 13.0–17.0) in Taiwan. SWB was a significant factor correlated with survival in Taiwan (hazard ratio [HR] 1.27; 95% CI 1.01–1.59; p = 0.04), while it was insignificant in Japan (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.00–1.22; p = 0.06), and Korea (HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.77–1.35; p = 0.89).
Significance of results
SWB on admission was associated with survival in patients with advanced cancer in Taiwan but not Japan or Korea. The findings suggest the possibility of a positive relationship between spiritual care and survival time in patients with far advanced cancer.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on recovery from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats.
First, we administered a 120-minute left MCAO to male Sprague-Dawley rats and randomly assigned them to one of four groups: no exercise (Group 1), mild exercise (Group 2), moderate exercise (Group 3), and severe exercise (Group 4). Then, we trained the rats for 30 min per day for one week or two weeks. We used a five-point neurological evaluation scale to measure neurological deficits 1-day, 4-days, 7-days, 10-days and 14-days after MCAO and measured infarct volume by use of 2% 2,3,4-triphenyltetrazolium chloride in exercised brains. We also performed immunohistochemistry analysis of the brain to observe reactive astrocytosis at the peri-infarct region.
Neurological examination indicated that Group 2 and 3 recovered better than Group 1 after one week and two weeks (p<0.05). Moreover, Group 2 and 3 had reduced brain infarct volume compared with Group 1 after one week (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between Group 4 and Group 1. The thickness of the peri-infarct astrocytosis was significantly reduced in Group 4 relative to Group 1 after one week. There was a significant negative correlation between the extent of reactive astrocytosis and neurological recovery (r= -0.648, p<0.01).
This study demonstrates that mild to moderate exercise that begins soon after induced cerebral ischemia promotes recovery and that astrocytes may have an important role in the recovery process.
We investigated the microstructural evolution of Sn96.4Ag2.8Cu0.8 solder through in situ heating transmission electron microscopy observations. As-soldered bump consisted of seven layers, containing the nanoeutectic lamella structure of AuSn and Au5Sn phases, and the polygonal grains of AuSn2 and AuSn4, on Au-plated Cu bond pads. Here, we found that there are two nanoeutectic lamellar layers with lamella spacing of 40 and 250 nm. By in situ heating above 140°C, the nanoeutectic lamella of AuSn and Au5Sn was decomposed with structural degradation by sphering and coarsening processes of the lamellar interface. At the third layer neighboring to the lamella layer, on the other hand, Au5Sn particles with a zig-zag shape in AuSn matrix became spherical and were finally dissipated in order to minimize the interface energy between two phases. In the other layers except both lamella layers, polycrystal grains of AuSn2 and AuSn4 grew by normal grain growth during in situ heating. The high interface energy of nanoeutectic lamella and polygonal nanograins, which are formed by rapid solidification, acted as a principal driving force on the microstructural change during the in situ heating.
Background: Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education.
Methods: A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (−1.5 to −1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below −1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated.
Results: Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the microstructures and mechanical properties of severely deformed Ni-30Cr alloy. Cross-roll rolling (CRR) as severe plastic deformation (SPD) process was introduced and Ni-30Cr alloy sheets were cold rolled to a 90% thickness reduction and subsequently annealed at 700 °C for 30 min so as to obtain the recrystallized microstructure. For the analysis of grain boundary character distributions (GBCDs), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique was introduced. CRR on Ni-30Cr alloy was effective to enhance the grain refinement through heat treatment; consequently, average grain size was significantly reduced from 33 μm in initial material to 0.6 μm in CRR processed material. This grain refinement directly affected the mechanical properties improvement, in which yield and tensile strengths were significantly increased than those of initial material. In this study, we systematically discussed the grain refinement, accompanying with increase in mechanical properties, in terms of the effective strain imposed by CRR, comparing with conventional rolling (CR).
The population of South Korea is ageing rapidly and government provision for older people is meagre. Hence the erosion of traditional family support for older people is of much concern. Yet relatively little is known about the actual financial status of elderly Koreans or the amount of economic support they receive from children. This paper addresses these issues using data from the 2006 Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We find that almost 70 per cent of Koreans aged 65 or more years received financial transfers from children and that the transfers accounted for about a quarter of an average elder's income. While over 60 per cent of elders would be poor without private transfers, children's transfers substantially mitigate elder poverty, filling about one-quarter of the poverty gap. Furthermore, children's transfers tend to be proportionally larger to low-income parents, so elder income inequality is reduced by the transfers. Over 40 per cent of elders lived with a child and co-residence helps reduce elder poverty. By showing that Korean children still play a crucial role in providing financial old-age security, we demonstrate how important it is for the Korean government to design old-age policies that preserve the incentives for private assistance. This snapshot of today's Korea also has implications for other rapidly changing Asian countries that are following a similar trajectory.
Decision making in an emotionally conflicting situation is important in social life. We aimed to address the similarity and disparity of neural correlates involved in processing ambivalent stimuli in patients with schizophrenia and patients with depression. Behavioral task-related hemodynamic responses were measured using [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 patients with depression. The task was a modified word-stem completion task, which was designed to evoke ambivalence in forced and non-forced choice conditions. The prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum were found to show increased activity in the healthy control group. In the schizophrenia group, activity in these two regions was negligible. In the depression group, the pattern of activity was altered and a functional compensatory recruitment of the inferior parietal regions was suggested. The prefrontal cortex seems to be associated with the cognitive control to resolve the conflict toward the ambivalent stimuli, whereas the cerebellum reflects the sustained working memory to search for compromise alternatives. The deficit of cerebellar activation in the schizophrenia group might underlie the inability to search and consider compromising responses for conflict resolution. (JINS, 2009, 15, 990–1001.)
To identify the factors that inhibit or motivate influenza vaccination among healthcare workers (HCWs).
In March 2000, we prepared 34-item questionnaire for both vaccine recipients and nonrecipients regarding demographic characteristics, factors motivating and inhibiting vaccination, and knowledge and attitudes about influenza vaccination. On the basis of the results of our survey, an aggressive hospital vaccination campaign was undertaken. In April 2004, after the 4-year campaign, the same questionnaire was again administered to HCWs.
In both 2000 and 2004, the main motives for undergoing influenza vaccination were “hospital campaign” and “recommendation by colleagues”; the percentage of respondents who were motivated by the hospital campaign had remarkably increased from 27% in 2000 to 52% in 2004 (P<.001), whereas the percentage who were motivated by recommendation by colleagues had not changed significantly (21% vs 14%). Qverall, the 4 reasons most frequently cited by HCWs for noncompliance with vaccination were insufficient available time, confidence in their health, doubt about vaccine efficacy, and fear of injection. In 2000, vaccination rates were below 30%, irrespective of occupation. After an aggressive vaccination campaign, the increase in the vaccination rate was highest among the nursing staff, increasing from 21% in 2000 to 92% in 2004, whereas the vaccination rate among the physicians was still below 60%.
We conclude that a hospital campaign can markedly improve influenza vaccination rates among HCWs. Both a mobile cart system and free vaccine supply contributed to improving the vaccination rates in our study. In addition, a specifically tailored intervention strategy was required.
Diversity in trichothecene mycotoxin production by 167 isolates of Fusarium graminearum was examined by chemical and molecular methods. Isolates from barley, corn, and wheat grown in Korea produced either deoxynivalenol (DON) or nivalenol (NIV), whereas isolates from corn grown in the United States produced DON only. Southern blotting of MseI-digested genomic DNA's from these isolates was performed using a 0.6-kb fragment of Tri5, a key enzyme for trichothecene production, as a probe. This technique revealed a single-band polymorphism between these isolates, with 1.8- and 2.2-kb bands arising from DON and NIV producers, respectively. The same set of isolates was subjected to previously developed PCR assays using primers derived from Tri7 or Tri13. These assays also revealed a single-band polymorphism between NIV- and DON-producing chemotypes. The polymorphisms at Tri5, Tri7, or Tri13 in all of the US isolates were consistent with their chemotypes as identified by GC–MS. However, for seven Korean isolates, chemical and molecular analyses yielded seemingly inconsistent results. This issue was resolved by Southern blot analysis with the Tri5 probe using two other restriction enzymes and sequence comparison of a 3.8-kb region spanning Tri5. In addition, one of these exceptional isolates was found to carry both DON and NIV chemotype-specific regions, possibly resulting from recombination between the two chemotypes.
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