To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Field experiments were conducted in Citra, FL, and Tifton, GA, to evaluate simulated drift of dicamba and 2,4-D on cotton. Drift applications were made at the sixth leaf and first square growth stages using variable and constant carrier volumes and the same herbicide rate. Drift applied using variable carrier volumes were proportionally reduced with the herbicide rate while drift applied at constant carrier volumes were all made at 140 L ha-1, regardless of herbicide rate. At 21 DAT, dicamba applied at variable carrier volumes reduced cotton heights 8% [from nontreated check (NTC)] compared to no change in height with dicamba applied at constant carrier volumes. The same effect was seen with 2,4-D applied at first square where variable carrier volumes decreased cotton heights 18% (from NTC) compared to 2% at 140 L ha-1. Cotton yields were reduced to 70% of NTC when dicamba was applied at sixth leaf at variable carrier volumes compared to 87% at constant carrier volumes. The same response was seen with 2,4-D applied at sixth leaf where variable carrier volumes reduced cotton yields to 19% of NTC compared to 32% at constant carrier volumes. Cotton injury, height, boll production, and yield were all affected by drift carrier volume. When simulating herbicide drift in the future, it is critical to use variable carrier volumes for application as constant carrier volumes have shown to decrease the amount of plant injury observed.
The importance of PRE herbicide applications in cotton has increased since the evolution of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth. Cotton producers are relying on residual herbicides for control of Palmer amaranth, as POST options are limited or ineffective. S-Metolachlor, acetochlor, fomesafen, and dicamba all provide PRE control of Palmer amaranth; however, little is known about the effect of irrigation rate on incorporation and herbicidal efficacy. In 2015, an experiment was conducted on fine sand and loamy sand soils to evaluate the influence of irrigation volume (0.0 to 12.7 mm ha−1) on Palmer amaranth control with PRE herbicides. Irrigation volume after herbicide application was significant for both S-metolachlor and acetochlor. Efficacy of S-metolachlor was greatest in plots receiving 6.4 and 12.7 mm of irrigation where Palmer amaranth biomass was reduced to 4 and 2% of a nontreated control (NTC), respectively, compared with 61% in plots with the 0-mm irrigation treatment. Palmer amaranth control by acetochlor incorporated at 3.2- to 12.7-mm irrigation did not differ but did reduce Palmer amaranth biomass compared with the 1.6-mm irrigation rate. Irrigation volume was not significant for the soil incorporation of fomesafen or dicamba. Across all herbicides, fomesafen-treated plots provided the most consistent control of Palmer amaranth, reducing its biomass to < 3% of NTC at all irrigation rates. Dicamba provided the least and most inconsistent control of Palmer amaranth, producing 17 to 51% of NTC biomass.
Two experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Florida to evaluate the effects of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides and single versus sequential applications on Palmer amaranth control and peanut injury. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides are among the last available herbicides for the POST control of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant Palmer amaranth in peanut. Lactofen (219 g ai ha–1) applied 5 d after the initial application provided the highest level of Palmer amaranth control 7 and 14 d after initial application (DAIT). Delaying sequential applications of lactofen to 15 d resulted in the highest level of Palmer amaranth control 21 and 28 DAIT. Similar to Palmer amaranth control, foliar injury to peanut was often highest from lactofen applications, and by 28 DAIT lactofen treatments were the only treatments that caused foliar injury. Although no statistical difference was observed between yields of plots treated with acifluorfen (280 g ai ha–1), bentazon (560 g ai ha–1), 2,4-DB (280 g ae ha–1) alone or in combination with each other, plots treated with sequential applications of lactofen 5 or 15 DAIT produced the lowest yields. Sequential applications of lactofen applied 15 DAIT controlled Palmer amaranth more effectively than any other treatment but also caused the highest level of peanut injury. The use of sequential applications of lactofen was the most effective method for control of Palmer amaranth in this study, but did reduce peanut yield.
Three years of subsidised sugar-beet growing in England has made clear the chief agricultural features of the crop. Many of our soils suit it well; the climate is favourable; it fits satisfactorily into some of our typical rotations. With the 1928 crop will come into operation the first of the subsidy reductions. The consequential change in standard price per ton of beet—46s. instead of 54s. as in 1925–7—has aroused anxious interest in the likelihood that the crop will outlive the subsidy. What price the factories will be able to offer on termination of the subsidy is not yet known. It will, of course, be decided by world-prices of sugar. Values between 30s. and 35s. per ton have been tentatively suggested. It has been claimed, further, that any price which covers cost of production will make the crop an asset to English agriculture because of the benefit to following crops. Whatever the strength of this claim farmers are and will continue to be anxiously concerned about net monetary return per acre. Now this return is governed by three factors—cost of growing, yield per acre, and price per ton. Costs of growing are not likely to alter substantially. Price per ton is considerably influenced by sugar content. The factories have devoted much effort to routine sampling and testing of deliveries but have not convinced farmers that their ascertainments are reliable. It may well be doubted whether any workable factory testing can be devised to ensure accuracy to 1 per cent, of sugar content.
The recent drive within the UK National Health Service to improve psychosocial care for people with mental illness is both understandable and welcome: evidence-based psychological and social interventions are extremely important in managing psychiatric illness. Nevertheless, the accompanying downgrading of medical aspects of care has resulted in services that often are better suited to offering non-specific psychosocial support, rather than thorough, broad-based diagnostic assessment leading to specific treatments to optimise well-being and functioning. In part, these changes have been politically driven, but they could not have occurred without the collusion, or at least the acquiescence, of psychiatrists. This creeping devaluation of medicine disadvantages patients and is very damaging to both the standing and the understanding of psychiatry in the minds of the public, fellow professionals and the medical students who will be responsible for the specialty's future. On the 200th birthday of psychiatry, it is fitting to reconsider the specialty's core values and renew efforts to use psychiatric skills for the maximum benefit of patients
We have developed a compact, 14.7 nm, sub-5 ps X-ray laser source at
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) together with a Mach-Zehnder
type diffraction grating interferometer built at Colorado State University
for probing dense, high intensity laser-produced plasmas. The short
wavelength and pulse length of the probe reduces refraction, absorption
effects within the plasma and minimizes plasma motion blurring. This
unique diagnostic capability gives precise two-dimensional (2D) density
profile snapshots and is generating new data for rapidly evolving
laser-heated plasmas. A review of the results from dense, mm-scale line
focus plasma experiments will be described with detailed comparisons to
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.