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No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
A series of MnOx–CeO2 binary oxide catalysts were synthesized by polyvinylpyrrolidone -assisted supercritical antisolvent precipitation and the effects of the manganese (Mn)/cerium (Ce) molar ratio and calcination temperature on the structure and properties of MnOx–CeO2 were investigated. A solid solution was obtained at each experimental condition and the highest surface area of 107.6 m2/g was obtained at the Mn/Ce molar ratio of 3:5 and the calcination temperature of 400 °C. Low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides, namely NO, NO2, and N2O (deNOx) with ammonia (NH3) to convert them into nitrogen and water, was used as model reaction to evaluate MnOx–CeO2 catalytic performance. It is found that the activity first increased and then decreased with increasing Mn content and decreased with increasing calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity (93.3% NO conversion and 100% N2 selectivity) was obtained at the Mn/Ce molar ratio of 1/1 and the calcination temperature of 400 °C, which was attributed to the combination of high surface area and high redox performance of the catalyst.
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