To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Dietary transitions in China have undergone rapid changes in over the last three decades. The purpose of this study is to describe trends in the macronutrient consumption, the sources of those nutrients and the diet quality among Chinese adults.
Longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) cohort analysis. Main outcomes are dietary energy intake from total carbohydrate, protein and fat and their subtypes, as well as food sources of carbohydrates, protein, and fat, and the China Dietary Guidelines Index 2018 (CDGI-2018).
CHNS (1991, 2000, 2009 and 2015).
Data from the longitudinal 1991, 2000, 2009 and 2015 CHNS of adults aged 18 years or older who had complete demographic information.
The estimated mean energy intake from total carbohydrate decreased from 62·6 % to 50·6 % between 1991 and 2015, while the mean energy intake from total protein increased from 12·6 % to just 13·1 % and the mean energy intake from total fat significantly increased from 24·0 % to 35·8 % (P < 0·001 for trend). Decreases were observed in evaluated mean energy from low-quality carbohydrates (from 53·6 % to 41·7 %) and incomplete protein (from 9·3 % to 7·5 %), while increases were seen in estimated mean energy from high-quality protein (from 3·3 % to 5·5 %), high-quality fat (from 9·1 % to 16·7 %) and low-quality fat (from 14·9 % to 19·0 %). Low-quality carbohydrates, primarily those derived from refined grains, decreased from 52·2 % to 36·2 %. The diet quality as measured by CDGI-2018 improved, with the estimated mean increasing from 41·7 to 52·4 (P < 0·01 for trend).
For Chinese adults, there was a significant change in the macronutrient composition over the previous few decades. The percentage of energy consumed from carbohydrates significantly decreased; however, the percentage of energy consumed from total fat significantly increased. Additionally, the diet quality remains suboptimal.
Little is known about the impact of modifiable risk factors on blood pressure (BP) trajectories and their associations with hypertension (HTN). We aimed to identify BP trajectories in normotensive Chinese adults and explore their influencing factors and associations with HTN. We used data from 3436 adults with at least four BP measurements between 1989 and 2018 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing cohort study. We measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers with appropriate cuff sizes in all surveys. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BP trajectories between 1989 and 2009 and multiple logistic and Cox regression models to analyse their influencing factors and associations with HTN in 2011–2018. We identified five systolic blood pressure (SBP) trajectories, ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Low–stable (LS)’, ‘Moderate-increasing (MI)’, ‘High-stable (HS)’ and ‘Moderate-decreasing (MD)’, and four diastolic blood pressure (DBP) trajectories classified as ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Moderate–stable (MS)’, ‘Low-stable (LS)’ and ‘High-increasing (HI)’. People with higher physical activity (PA) levels and lower waist circumferences (WC) were less likely to be in the SBP LI, MI, HS and MD groups (P < 0·05). People with higher fruit and vegetable intakes, lower WCs and salt intakes and higher PA levels were less likely to be in the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (P < 0·05). Participants in the SBP HS group (hazard ratio (HR) 2·01) or the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (HR 1·38, 1·40, 1·71, respectively) had higher risks of HTN (P < 0·05). This study suggests that BP monitoring is necessary to prevent HTN in the Chinese population.
Antipsychotics are widely used for treating patients with psychosis, and target threshold psychotic symptoms. Individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis are characterized by subthreshold psychotic symptoms. It is currently unclear who might benefit from antipsychotic treatment. Our objective was to apply a risk calculator (RC) to identify people that would benefit from antipsychotics.
Drawing on 400 CHR individuals recruited between 2011 and 2016, 208 individuals who received antipsychotic treatment were included. Clinical and cognitive variables were entered into an individualized RC for psychosis; personal risk was estimated and 4 risk components (negative symptoms-RC-NS, general function-RC-GF, cognitive performance-RC-CP, and positive symptoms-RC-PS) were constructed. The sample was further stratified according to the risk level. Higher risk was defined based on the estimated risk score (20% or higher).
In total, 208 CHR individuals received daily antipsychotic treatment of an olanzapine-equivalent dose of 8.7 mg with a mean administration duration of 58.4 weeks. Of these, 39 (18.8%) developed psychosis within 2 years. A new index of factors ratio (FR), which was derived from the ratio of RC-PS plus RC-GF to RC-NS plus RC-CP, was generated. In the higher-risk group, as FR increased, the conversion rate decreased. A small group (15%) of CHR individuals at higher-risk and an FR >1 benefitted from the antipsychotic treatment.
Through applying a personal risk assessment, the administration of antipsychotics should be limited to CHR individuals with predominantly positive symptoms and related function decline. A strict antipsychotic prescription strategy should be introduced to reduce inappropriate use.
To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China.
A cross-sectional study.
A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years.
Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50–64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18–34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35–49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50–64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31).
Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.
Only 30% or fewer of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) convert to full psychosis within 2 years. Efforts are thus underway to refine risk identification strategies to increase their predictive power. Our objective was to develop and validate the predictive accuracy and individualized risk components of a mobile app-based psychosis risk calculator (RC) in a CHR sample from the SHARP (ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis) program.
In total, 400 CHR individuals were identified by the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. In the first phase of 300 CHR individuals, 196 subjects (65.3%) who completed neurocognitive assessments and had at least a 2-year follow-up assessment were included in the construction of an RC for psychosis. In the second phase of the SHARP sample of 100 subjects, 93 with data integrity were included to validate the performance of the SHARP-RC.
The SHARP-RC showed good discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.78 (p < 0.001). The individualized risk generated by the SHARP-RC provided a solid estimation of conversion in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.80 (p = 0.003). A risk estimate of 20% or higher had excellent sensitivity (84%) and moderate specificity (63%) for the prediction of psychosis. The relative contribution of individual risk components can be simultaneously generated. The mobile app-based SHARP-RC was developed as a convenient tool for individualized psychosis risk appraisal.
The SHARP-RC provides a practical tool not only for assessing the probability that an individual at CHR will develop full psychosis, but also personal risk components that might be targeted in early intervention.
Few of the previous studies of clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) have explored whether outcomes other than conversion, such as poor functioning or treatment responses, are better predicted when using risk calculators. To answer this question, we compared the predictive accuracy between the outcome of conversion and poor functioning by using the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
Three hundred CHR individuals were identified using the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. Of these, 228 (76.0%) completed neurocognitive assessments at baseline and 199 (66.3%) had at least a 1-year follow-up assessment. The latter group was used in the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
We divided the sample into two broad categories based on different outcome definitions, conversion (n = 46) v. non-conversion (n = 153) or recovery (n = 138) v. poor functioning (n = 61). Interestingly, the NAPLS-2 risk calculator showed moderate discrimination of subsequent conversion to psychosis in this sample with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.631 (p = 0.007). However, for discriminating poor functioning, the AUC of the model increased to 0.754 (p < 0.001).
Our results suggest that the current risk calculator was a better fit for predicting a poor functional outcome and treatment response than it was in the prediction of conversion to psychosis.
Fractal features of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) in shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) flows are essential in understanding the physics of the SWBLI and the supersonic turbulent boundary layer, yet have received almost no attention previously. Accordingly, this study utilises a high spatiotemporal resolution visualisation technique, ice-cluster-based planar laser scattering (IC-PLS), to acquire the TNTI downstream of the reattachment in a SWBLI flow. Evolution of the fractal features of the TNTI in this SWBLI flow is analysed by comparing the parameters of the TNTI acquired in this study with those from a previous result (Zhuang et al.J. Fluid Mech., vol. 843, 2018a).
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
Previous studies in China showed large sex differences in childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB) rates. However, limited research has examined the cause of these sex differences. The present study aimed to examine individual and parental/familial factors associated with sex differences in childhood OW/OB rates in China.
Variables associated with child weight status, beliefs and behaviours, and obesity-related parenting practices were selected to examine their sex differences and association with a sex difference in child OW/OB outcomes using logistic regression analysis.
Cross-sectional data analysis using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Children aged 6–17 years (n 1544) and their parents.
Overall child OW/OB prevalence was 16·8 %. Adolescent boys (AB; 12–17 years) were about twice as likely to be overweight/obese as adolescent girls (AG; 15·5 v. 8·4 %, P<0·05). AB more likely had energy intake exceeding recommendations, self-perceived underweight, underestimated their body weight and were satisfied with their physical activity level than AG. AG more likely practised weight-loss management through diet and self-perceived overweight than AB. Mothers more likely identified AG’s weight accurately but underestimated AB’s weight. Stronger associations with risk of childhood OW/OB were found in boys than girls in dieting to lose weight (OR=6·7 in boys v. 2·6 in girls) and combined maternal and child perception of the child’s overweight (OR=35·4 in boys v. 14·2 in girls).
Large sex differences in childhood obesity may be related to the sex disparities in weight-related beliefs and behaviours among children and their parents in China.
Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (<once/week), multivariable adjusted OR for elevated depressive symptoms were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·28, 1·81), 2·24 (95 % CI 1·76, 2·81) and 3·31 (95 % CI 2·52, 4·30) for consumption of once, 2–3 times and ≥4 times/week, respectively (Pfor trend<0·0001), indicating a clear dose–response relationship. The results suggested that higher consumption of PE was strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
Microstructures of new heat-resistant steel grade T23 welded joint without PWHT and its corresponding mechanical properties including creep were investigated to clarify its premature failure mechanisms in the large water wall panel of the advanced power plant boiler. The results show that the T23 steel GTAW welded joint in a wall thickness of 6.5 mm without PWHT exhibits high tensile strength, good ductility, and sufficient impact toughness, while the hardness of the WM is higher than the maximum permitted value of 350 HV due to the large amount of un-tempered martensite formed during the cooling process of welding. This WM in as-welded condition has higher creep rupture strength but poorer rupture ductility than the tempered BM. Poor rupture ductility taken place in the WM results from inter-granular cracking during creep exposure and is not related to the second hardening because no hardness rise occurs in the fractured WM compared with as-welded condition. The paper does not specifically investigate the effect of service exposure but simulates the failure of WM by a creep test. The main point is that the WM has low creep ductility, especially at a stress concentration.
The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and explore their associations with blood lipid profiles among Chinese women.
In a cross-sectional study, we identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected blood samples in the morning after an overnight fast and measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and TAG.
Data were from the 2009 wave of the CHNS.
We studied 2468 women aged 18–80 years from the CHNS.
We identified three dietary patterns: traditional southern (high intakes of rice, pork and vegetables), snack (high intakes of fruits, eggs and cakes) and Western (high intakes of poultry, fast foods and milk). The traditional southern pattern was inversely associated with HDL-C (β=−0·68; 95 % CI −1·22, −0·14; P<0·05). The snack pattern was significantly associated with higher TAG (β=4·14; 95 % CI 0·44, 7·84; P<0·05). The Western pattern was positively associated with TC (β=2·52; 95 % CI 1·03, 4·02; P<0·01) and LDL-C (β=2·26; 95 % CI 0·86, 3·66; P<0·01).
We identified three dietary patterns that are significantly associated with blood lipid profiles. This information is important for developing interventions and policies addressing dyslipidaemia prevention among Chinese women.
The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al sheets subjected to accumulative roll bonding (ARB) and subsequent cryorolling was studied. Cryorolling can suppress the dynamic softening of UFG Al sheets subjected to ARB at room temperature. After the third ARB pass, the grains are slightly refined as the number of ARB passes increases. However, the grains are significantly refined further during cryorolling. The grain size of 460 nm achieved after the third ARB pass is reduced to 290 nm after two cryorolling passes with total reduction ratio 80%. Sheets subjected to ARB + cryorolling show improved mechanical properties compared to only ARB-processed sheets due to a change in the fraction of high-angle boundaries and elongated grains. The deformation mechanism for ultrafine grains at room temperature is determined by grain boundary sliding or dislocation-based recovery, while it is governed by dislocation glide at cryogenic temperature.
Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)) may influence serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD). In the present study, we assessed serum 25OHD concentration and its association with PTH and BMD in urban males from Guiyang (N26.57°), the capital city of Guizhou province, Southwest China. We recruited 634 males aged >20 years from the Guiyang Health Measures Survey, and stratified them into three groups according to age: young (20–39 years), middle aged (40–59 years) and older (60–79 years). We measured serum concentrations of 25OHD, PTH levels and BMD of the lumbar spine (L1–L4), femoral neck and total hip. In addition, we also explored the relationship between 25OHD and lifestyle, socio-economic characteristics and medical history by applying covariance analysis and locally weighted regression plots. The results showed that serum 25OHD was <50 nmol/l in 59·3 % of the subjects and >75 nmol/l in 12·6 % of the subjects. Higher level of serum PTH was detected in relation to lower concentrations of serum 25OHD up to 50 nmol/l. A negative correlation between serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations was observed (r −0·207, P=0·003). Mean concentration of serum PTH increased gradually and plateaued while concentrations of serum 25OHD decreased to 50 nmol/l. Gradual increase in serum PTH was observed as 25OHD concentration was <25 nmol/l (P=0·004). BMD values at all sites were greater in the higher serum 25OHD concentration group. This study shows that low concentrations of serum 25OHD were common in males, and bone health was likely to be improved when serum 25OHD values were between 30 and 50 nmol/l.
Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The presnt study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children.
The effects of trace La additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Cu–0.2 wt% Zr alloy have been investigated. Traditional thermo-mechanical processing was applied to the Cu–Zr alloys. Isochronal aging and isothermal aging were used to optimize the aging conditions. According to the hardness and conductivity tests, the optimized aging condition should be 150 min isothermal holding at 400 °C following 85% cold-rolling. If the as-cast sample is subjected to aging, the addition of La obviously refines the microstructures. After cold-rolling, however, the La addition has no significant effects on the grain size of the aged sample. SEM and TEM are combined to observe the distribution and morphology of the precipitates, which are identified to be Cu5Zr. The addition of La can improve the hardness and conductivity simultaneously in the as-cast samples after aging, while it improves the hardness and strength and decreases the conductivity slightly in the cold-rolled samples after aging. XRD and TEM results show that the lattice parameter and the dislocation density are increased by the addition of La.
Three-dimensional (3D) morphological evolution and growth mechanisms of primary I-phase particles have been investigated in directionally solidified Al–6Mn–2.5Be (wt%) alloy at a wide range of growth rates (100–1500 μm/s). At relatively low growth rates (100–600 μm/s), the I-phase particles exhibit faceted growth with strong anisotropy, forming a hierarchical flower-like aggregate with icosahedral morphological symmetry composed of several attached irregular polyhedrons or pentagonal dodecahedrons. At higher growth rates (e.g., 1000 μm/s), the interface of the I-phases becomes unstable along the edges and corners of the pentagonal dodecahedron, thereby arousing growth perturbations. Correspondingly, a transition from faceted to nonfaceted growth occurs with increasing growth rate. Further increase of the growth rate leads to the formation of I-phase columnar dendrites' preferential growth along the 3-fold axis. The configurations of the flower-like aggregates can be adequately illustrated by a geometrical model in terms of the perfect and elongated pentagonal dodecahedrons. A growth mechanism for the flower-like aggregates has been proposed based on the clear understanding of the 3D morphological evolution of the I-phase particles.
Error-prone repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) results in DNA mutation that is essential for mutation breeding. Non-homologous end joining might be the principal DSB repair mechanism in eukaryotes, which is mediated and activated by Ku protein, a heterodimer of 70 and 80 kDa subunits. In this study, on the basis of complementary DNA (cDNA), the genomic sequences of TaKu70 and TaKu80 genes in all the three genomes of wheat were characterized. Only single-nucleotide substitutions and no insertions or deletions were detected in the exons of TaKu70 and TaKu80 genes. The size of the introns exhibited a slight variation between the sequences. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that TaKu70 and TaKu80 formed a heterodimer, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that this heterodimer bound to double-stranded DNA, but not to single-stranded DNA. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of TaKu70 and TaKu80 genes was up-regulated under γ-ray irradiation in a dose-dependent manner in the seedlings of wheat. These results suggest that TaKu70 and TaKu80 form a functional heterodimer and are associated with the repair of the induced DSBs in wheat.
A comprehensive understanding of the growth pattern of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) during solidification is critical to both the crystal-growth theory and its property optimization. In this article, growth pattern and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of primary Al6Mn IMC were investigated in directionally solidified Al–3 at.% Mn alloy at a wide range of growth rates. A transition from faceted (<60 μm/s) to nonfaceted growth (>100 μm/s) was observed with increasing growth rates. Correspondingly, 3D morphologies of primary Al6Mn change from a solid polyhedron to a hollow structure, and then to a dendrite. This kind of change is associated with the competitive growths of different crystal planes determined by the crystallographic anisotropy and growth kinetics of Al6Mn. A growth model based on atomic cluster attachment is proposed to reveal the growth transition, and a growth-rate ratio between different crystal planes is used to appropriately reveal the formation mechanism of different morphologies at low rates.