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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: SGLT2i therapy is currently a cornerstone in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) therapy. Similarly, H2S has been shown to be beneficial in preclinical models of heart failure. With this in mind, we sought to investigate the effects of the SGLT2i and H2S donor therapy alone or in combination in a rodent model of cardiometabolic HFpEF. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Male C57BL/6N mice (9 weeks of age) were fed a high fat, Western diet (HFD) and received L-NG-Nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the drinking water (0.5 g/L) to induce HFpEF. At 5 weeks, animals were randomized to either control, H2S donor (SG-1002, 90 mg/kg/d, P.O), Empagliflozin (155 mg/L, P.O), or the combination of SG-1002 and Empagliflozin for an additional 5 weeks while being maintained on HFD and L-NAME. Echocardiography, left ventricular invasive LV and systemic hemodynamics, and exercise capacity testing were performed to assess cardiovascular disease severity. Fasted glucose, circulating triglyceride and cholesterol content were similarly measured to quantify key clinical metabolic parameters. H2S and its metabolite, sulfane sulfur, were quantified to assure adequate H2S donation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Administration of SG-1002 restored H2S and sulfane sulfur to normal circulating levels. All treatment groups exhibited similar improvements in LV diastolic dysfunction as measured by E/E’and LVEDP. Combination therapy significantly improved exercise capacity whereas the monotherapy groups did not. Treatment with SG-1002 decreased fasting glucose and circulating cholesterol while all treatment groups displayed decreased circulating triglycerides and body weight compared to HFpEF control. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that restoring H2S or treatment with an SGLT2i in this preclinical HFpEF model attenuates pathology. Combination of both drugs exhibited greater benefit than either monotherapy in important HFpEF parameters such as exercise capacity. Further studies are underway to characterize the benefits observed from combination therapy.
Lead-free BaTiO3 (BT)-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with the thickness of dielectric layers ~9 μm were successfully fabricated by tape-casting and screen-printing techniques. A single phase of the pseudo-cubic structure was revealed by X-ray diffraction. Backscattered images and energy-dispersive X-ray elemental mapping indicated the high quality of MLCCs without observation of interaction, wrapping, or delamination. The relaxor state was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and temperature-dependent permittivity. Impedance spectroscopy at various temperatures revealed the electrical heterogeneous response for MLCCs with high-resistive electrical components. Improved energy storage performance was obtained by multilayering, comparing with the bulk ceramics. Enhanced recoverable energy density ~6.88 J/cm3 with high efficiency ~90% were realized under an electric field of 820 kV/cm, which is mainly attributed to the intrinsic high-resistivity and relaxor behavior. Furthermore, good temperature (20–85 °C) and frequency stabilities (0.5–50 Hz) were observed in the MLCCs, which are attractive for pulsed power applications.
To assess the prevalence and to identify the associated factors of malnutrition among elderly Chinese with physical functional dependency.
Face-to-face interviews using standardised questionnaires were conducted to collect demographic information, health-related issues and psychosocial status. Physical function was measured by the Barthel Index (BI), and nutrition status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment–Short Form. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to assess associated factors of malnutrition.
A total of 2323 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) with physical functional dependency in five provinces in China were enrolled using a multistage cluster sampling scheme.
The prevalence of malnutrition was 17·9 % (95 % CI 16·3, 19·4). Multivariable binary logistic regression revealed the independent risk factors of poor nutrition status were being female, older age, lower educational status, poor hearing, poor physical functional status, lack of hobbies, low religious participation, poor social support, lack of social participation and changes in social participation. The study found that the most significant independent risk factor for malnutrition was complete physical functional dependence (OR 4·46, 95 % CI 2·92, 6·82).
The findings of the study confirm that malnutrition and the risk of malnutrition are prevalent in Chinese older adults with physical functional dependency. In addition to demographic and physical health-related factors, psychosocial factors, which are often overlooked, are independently associated with nutrition status in Chinese older adults with physical functional dependency. A holistic approach should be adopted to screen for malnutrition and develop health promotion interventions in this vulnerable population.
Polished tiles (7×7×2 mm3) of Nd-bearing zirconolite were fabricated and then some were irradiated on both large faces with 3 MeV or 2 MeV Au2+ ions (total fluence of ≥ 1 × 1015 ions/cm2) in order to render the zirconolite amorphous and so simulate displacement damage caused by alpha decay. Both the irradiated and non-irradiated tiles were then subjected to static dissolution tests in 0.01M nitric solution (pH2) at 90 C, for periods of 0–1, 1–7, 7–14 and 14–28 days. It was found that radiation damage did not affect the dissolution rate of zirconolite as indicated by the elemental leach rates of Nd, Ti, Ca and Al. The results of solution analyses are consistent with those obtained from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in that the Ca, Nd, Ti and Al concentrations in the top surface layer (< 5 nm) all decreased with respect to that of Zr after dissolution testing, and the leached surface composition of the non-irradiated zirconolite is very similar to that of the two irradiated specimens. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of previous work.
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