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Maternal syphilis not only seriously affects the quality of life of pregnant women themselves but also may cause various adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). This study aimed to analyse the association between the related factors and APOs in maternal syphilis. 7,030 pregnant women infected with syphilis in Henan Province between January 2016 and December 2022 were selected as participants. Information on their demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment status, and pregnancy outcomes was collected. Multivariate logistic regression models and chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) decision tree models were used to analyse the factors associated with APOs. The multivariate logistic regression results showed that the syphilis infection history (OR = 1.207, 95% CI, 1.035–1.409), the occurrence of abnormality during pregnancy (OR = 5.001, 95% CI, 4.203–5.951), not receiving standard treatment (OR = 1.370, 95% CI, 1.095–1.716), not receiving any treatment (OR = 1.313, 95% CI, 1.105–1.559), and a titre ≥1:8 at diagnosis (OR = 1.350, 95%CI, 1.079–1.690) and before delivery (OR = 1.985, 95%CI, 1.463–2.694) were risk factors. A total of six influencing factors of APOs in syphilis-infected women were screened using the CHAID decision tree model. Integrated prevention measures such as early screening, scientific eugenics assessment, and standard syphilis treatment are of great significance in reducing the incidence of APOs for pregnant women infected with syphilis.
Objectives: Medical devices and the hospital environment can be contaminated easily by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The effectiveness of cleaning practices is often suboptimal because environmental cleaning in hospitals is complex and depends on human factors, the physical and chemical characteristics of environment, and the viability of the microorganisms. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) lamps can be used to reduce the spread of microorganisms. We evaluated the effectiveness of an ultraviolet-C (UV-C) device on terminal room cleaning and disinfection. Methods: The study was conducted at an ICU of a medical center in Taiwan. We performed a 3-stage evaluation for the effectiveness of UV-C radiation, including pre–UV-C radiation, UV-C radiation, and a bleaching procedure. The 3 stages of evaluation were implemented in the ICU rooms from which a patient had been discharged or transferred. We collected the data from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence testing, colonized strains, and their corresponding colony counts by sampling from the environmental surfaces and air. We tested 8 high-touch surfaces, including 2 sides of bed rails, headboards, footboards, bedside tables, monitors, pumping devices, IV stands, and oxygen flow meters. Results: In total, 1,696 environmental surfaces and 72 air samples were analyzed. The levels of ATP bioluminescence and colony counts of isolated bacteria decreased significantly after UV-C radiation and bleaching disinfection for both the environmental and air samples (P < .001). Resistant bacteria (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, VRE) were commonly isolated on the hard-to-clean surfaces of monitors, oxygen flow meters, and IV pumps. However, they were also eradicated (P < .001). Conclusions: UV-C can significantly reduce environmental contamination by multidrug-resistant microorganisms. UV-C is an effective device to assist staff in cleaning the hospital environment.
To explore the effect of yield stress on the secondary breakup of gel drops, experimental and theoretical investigations are carried out by employing a high-speed camera. A unique hemline-type breakup, as a modified behaviour of sheet-thinning breakup, occurs when the air velocity increases to a high region. The edges of the drops constantly deform into thin membranes when the high-velocity air skims over the gel drops. These membranes vibrate vertically, and breaking points occur at high amplitudes, causing the formation of reticular fragments. The results of linear stability analysis indicated that the yield stress of the gel drops has an influence on the formation and breakup of the gel membranes. The breakup regime map and breakup times are also studied.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
Background: The genetic region coding for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein1 (LRP1) is considered an intriguing susceptibility locus for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by episodic memory impairment and represents the prodromal stage of AD. Our aim in this study is to investigate the relationship between LRP1 genetic variation and aMCI, and the influence of LRP1 on cognitive performance.
Methods: We performed a case-control association study analyzing five polymorphisms in LRP1 gene by TaqMan Assays-on-Demand SNP Genotyping. All samples were derived from Chinese subjects (109 cases, 104 healthy controls) and assessed using multi-dimension neuropsychological instruments.
Results: We identified haplotypes within the region containing the LRP1 gene. Of these, haplotype TAA (T: rs1800194; A: rs11837145; A: rs10876967) was significantly associated with aMCI, being over-represented in aMCI versus healthy controls. Haplotype TAA was associated with poor performance on episodic memory in all subjects.
Conclusions: This study confirms the association between genetic variants in LRP1 and aMCI. Moreover, we have identified a relationship between LRP1 genetic variation and specific aspects of neurocognitive function. Our convergent results suggest that LRP1 plays an important role in cognitive function and possibly in the pathogenesis of aMCI.
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