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Compliant interaction between robots and the environment is crucial for completing contact-rich tasks. However, obtaining and implementing optimal interaction behavior in complex unknown environments remains a challenge. This article develops a hybrid impedance and admittance control (HIAC) scheme for robots subjected to the second-order unknown environment. To obtain the second-order target impedance model that represents the optimal interaction behavior without the accurate environment dynamics and acceleration feedback, an impedance adaptation method with virtual inertia is proposed. Since impedance control and admittance control have complementary structures and result in unsatisfactory performance in a wide range of environmental stiffness due to their fixed causality, a hybrid system framework suitable for the second-order environment is proposed to generate a series of intermediate controllers which interpolate between the responses of impedance and admittance controls by using a switching controller and adjusting its switching duty cycle. In addition, the optimal intermediate controller is selected using a mapping of the optimal duty cycle to provide the optimal implementation performance for the target impedance model. The proposed HIAC scheme can achieve the desired interaction and impedance implementation performance while ensuring system stability. Simulation and experimental studies are performed to verify the effectiveness of our scheme with a 2-DOF manipulator and a 7-DOF Franka EMIKA panda robot, respectively.
Maternal syphilis not only seriously affects the quality of life of pregnant women themselves but also may cause various adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). This study aimed to analyse the association between the related factors and APOs in maternal syphilis. 7,030 pregnant women infected with syphilis in Henan Province between January 2016 and December 2022 were selected as participants. Information on their demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment status, and pregnancy outcomes was collected. Multivariate logistic regression models and chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) decision tree models were used to analyse the factors associated with APOs. The multivariate logistic regression results showed that the syphilis infection history (OR = 1.207, 95% CI, 1.035–1.409), the occurrence of abnormality during pregnancy (OR = 5.001, 95% CI, 4.203–5.951), not receiving standard treatment (OR = 1.370, 95% CI, 1.095–1.716), not receiving any treatment (OR = 1.313, 95% CI, 1.105–1.559), and a titre ≥1:8 at diagnosis (OR = 1.350, 95%CI, 1.079–1.690) and before delivery (OR = 1.985, 95%CI, 1.463–2.694) were risk factors. A total of six influencing factors of APOs in syphilis-infected women were screened using the CHAID decision tree model. Integrated prevention measures such as early screening, scientific eugenics assessment, and standard syphilis treatment are of great significance in reducing the incidence of APOs for pregnant women infected with syphilis.
This article develops a framework to test how surface-level and deep-level faultlines impact team performance through subgroup formation and team interaction quality. We test it with 96 empirical articles on team faultlines from 2002 to 2022, using meta-analytic techniques. Firstly, results suggest that subgroup formation and team interaction quality act as serial mediums through which surface-level and deep-level faultlines exert negative indirect effects on team performance. Secondly, moderator analyses reveal that increasing interaction time will mitigate the effects of surface-level faultlines but enhance the effects of deep-level faultlines. Finally, surface- and deep-level social faultlines and deep-level task faultlines are detrimental to team interaction quality, and these negative effects are mediated by subgroup formation. Surface-level task faultlines are beneficial to team interaction, and this positive effect does not work through subgroup formation.
Orbital driven climate control on sedimentation produces regional, stratigraphically repetitive characters and so cyclostratigraphic correlation can improve correlation and identify stratigraphic trends in borehole sections. This concept is commonly used to correlate marine and lacustrine strata. However, in the alluvial domain, its use is more challenging because internal, local dynamics controlling sedimentation may interfere with the expression of cyclic climate forcing. Intervals of low net-to-gross may be important for successful application in this domain as they tend to better document regional changes. This study applies climate-based stratigraphic correlation concepts to improve well correlations, characterise vertical sand distribution, and identify potential reservoir targets in a generally low net-to-gross interval. Coarsening upward sedimentary repetitions (cyclothems) are identified and correlated with high certainty in nineteen well sections in the upper Carboniferous Westoe and Cleaver formations of the Silverpit Basin. Local sedimentary dynamics provide variability in the character of the cyclothems and several types of cyclothem are classified. Correlation of sections using cyclothems recognised on wireline logs is done twice: once manually and once semi-automatically. The semi-automated correlation is based on calculation of deviation curves which depict stratigraphic changes that are less dependent on absolute wireline values and follow vertical trends more clearly. The correlations provide composite stratigraphies that are analysed using vertical proportions curves. Both approaches yield similar results in terms of stratigraphic trends. However, for detailed correlation of wells, the manual correlation is better at accounting for any local variability within the system. The same two zones of higher net-to-gross ratios are found using both correlation methods. These are linked to palaeoclimatic changes driven by long eccentricity and the proposed climate stratigraphic model has predictive value for identifying sandstone occurrence. The climate-based stratigraphic correlation improves the assessment reservoir distribution and properties on small (10–20 m thickness) and large (100–200 m thickness) stratigraphical scales.
Heat and mass transports through a rough surface are among the most fundamental and important phenomena in either natural or engineering problems. In this paper, theoretical modelling and direct simulation Monte Carlo method are employed to study the heterogeneous reaction–diffusion features induced by microscale roughness which is comparable to the molecular mean free path of the ambient gas. A quasi-one-dimensional homogeneous model is proposed, and it consists of an external diffusion region outside the roughness elements and an internal reaction–diffusion region which could be equivalent to a smooth surface with an effective chemical property. The external macroscopic diffusion can be characterized by a non-equilibrium criterion – the Damköhler number. The internal diffusion in micro-cavities must be analysed by considering the rarefied gas effects on the diffusivity, and another non-equilibrium criterion, the Thiele number, is introduced to evaluate the effective boundary condition imposed on the external region. Analytical formulae based on these criteria are derived to predict the equivalent surface reaction–diffusion performance, and the predictions compare well with the numerical results of different types of surface reaction, even on the three-dimensional roughness. This reveals that the roughness could either enhance or weaken the apparent reaction rate depending on the non-equilibrium degree. This study could enrich our understanding of the gas–surface interactions on a rough wall, such as the oxidation, catalysis and energy accommodation, and also preliminarily provides a practical method for evaluation of the aerothermochemical performance of coating materials of hypersonic vehicles.
Although ethanol treatment is widely used to activate oocytes, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Roles of intracellular calcium stores and extracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation (EIA) of oocytes remain to be verified, and whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in EIA is unknown. This study showed that calcium-free ageing (CFA) in vitro significantly decreased intracellular stored calcium (sCa) and CaSR expression, and impaired EIA, spindle/chromosome morphology and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. Although EIA in oocytes with full sCa after ageing with calcium does not require calcium influx, calcium influx is essential for EIA of oocytes with reduced sCa after CFA. Furthermore, the extremely low EIA rate in oocytes with CFA-downregulated CaSR expression and the fact that inhibiting CaSR significantly decreased the EIA of oocytes with a full complement of CaSR suggest that CaSR played a significant role in the EIA of ageing oocytes. In conclusion, CFA impaired EIA and the developmental potential of mouse oocytes by decreasing sCa and downregulating CaSR expression. Because mouse oocytes routinely treated for activation (18 h post hCG) are equipped with a full sCa complement and CaSR, the present results suggest that, while calcium influx is not essential, CaSR is required for the EIA of oocytes.
To contribute to the treatment decision and optimize coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) control programs, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance rates of coagulase-negative staphylococcus associated with bovine mastitis in China. Three databases (PubMed, Google scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database) were utilized to obtain relevant publications. A total of 18 publications were included in our research, and 3 of them included antimicrobial resistant (AMR) test. The pooled prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococcus was 17.28%. Subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence was higher in South China than in North China, was higher in 2011–2020 than in 2000–2010 and was higher in clinical bovine mastitis cases than in subclinical cases. The pooled AMR were most resistant to β-lactams, followed by tetracyclines, quinolones, nitrofurans, lincosamides, sulfonamides, amphenicol and aminoglycosides. The pooled AMR rate of coagulase-negative staphylococcus was lower in 2011–2020 than in 2000–2010. Although the prevalence of CNS showed an increasing trend over 20 years, the AMR rate showed a decreasing trend, and the clinical type of mastitis was the most frequent and the prevalence was highest in South China. Finally, CNS was most resistant to β-lactams amongst the eight groups of antimicrobial agents.
Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been associated with sleep quality. However, its relationship with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the association between the DASH diet and SDB using data from a community-based survey among adults in Suzhou, Eastern China. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Suzhou Food Consumption and Health Survey in 2018–2020. Dietary intake was measured by a validated FFQ. The association between the DASH diet and SDB was estimated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. In addition, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed to reinforce our findings. A total of 3939 participants were included in the final analysis. Participants in the upper quintile of the DASH score consumed more fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, and dairy products, and less Na, red/processed meats, and sweetened beverages. The OR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of the DASH score was 0·68 (95 % CI 0·52, 0·88; Pfor trend = 0·004) for SDB after multivariable adjustment. Of the eight DASH components, vegetables, nuts and legumes, and dairy products were inversely associated with SDB. The associations were similar in subgroups by age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. Adherence to the DASH diet was independently associated with decreased odds of self-reported SDB. Our novel results expand previous findings on diet and sleep and suggest the possibility of improving SDB by enhancing diet quality.
Abnormal reward functioning is central to anhedonia and amotivation symptoms of schizophrenia (SCZ). Reward processing encompasses a series of psychological components. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the brain dysfunction related to reward processing of individuals with SCZ spectrum disorders and risks, covering multiple reward components.
After a systematic literature search, 37 neuroimaging studies were identified and divided into four groups based on their target psychology components (i.e. reward anticipation, reward consumption, reward learning, effort computation). Whole-brain Seed-based d Mapping (SDM) meta-analyses were conducted for all included studies and each component.
The meta-analysis for all reward-related studies revealed reduced functional activation across the SCZ spectrum in the striatum, orbital frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and cerebellar areas. Meanwhile, distinct abnormal patterns were found for reward anticipation (decreased activation of the cingulate cortex and striatum), reward consumption (decreased activation of cerebellum IV/V areas, insula and inferior frontal gyri), and reward learning processing (decreased activation of the striatum, thalamus, cerebellar Crus I, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and parietal and occipital areas). Lastly, our qualitative review suggested that decreased activation of the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex was also involved in effort computation.
These results provide deep insights on the component-based neuro-psychopathological mechanisms for anhedonia and amotivation symptoms of the SCZ spectrum.
Objectives: Rapid and accurate screening for carbapenemase-producing organism (CPOs) in hospitalized patients is critical for infection control and prevention. The Xpert Carba-R assay is designed for rapid detection of CPOs, but 1 assay is usually conducted for only 1 sample. We evaluated a pooling strategy for CPO screening using the Xpert Carba-R assay. Methods: Swab sets containing 2 swabs were collected from 415 unique patients at Peking University People’s Hospital. One swab was used for the pooling test, in which 5 swabs from different patients were mixed in 1 sample treatment solution. The prevalence of CPOs in the hospital (5.3%) predicted that 5:1 pooling was most economical. As the reference method, the other swab was tested by culture using sequencing. Results: Of 415 samples, 383 were CPO negative using the pooling test strategy and 31 were positive. All samples that were negative by pooling were negative by culture and sequencing. Among the 31 positive samples identified by the pooling strategy, 26 were positive by culture and sequencing (including 24 samples with 1 targeted gene and 2 samples with double targeted genes, 1 NDM+/IMP+ and 1 VIM+/IMP+), and 5 were negative. Overall, 198 tests were conducted in the study, and 217 were saved compared with testing individually. The efficiency of the pooling strategy was 215%. The overall sensitivity was 1 (95% CI, 0.840–1), the specificity was 0.987 (95% CI, 0.968–0.995), the accuracy was 0.987 (95% CI, 0.970–0.996), positive predictive value was 0.838 (95% CI, 0.655–0.939), and the negative predictive value was 1 (95% CI, 0.988–1). Conclusions: The pooling strategy using the Xpert Carba-R assay showed good potential in screening CPO with good sensitivity and a significantly lower cost.
Mental disorders, including depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia, share a common neuropathy of disturbed large-scale coordinated brain maturation. However, high-interindividual heterogeneity hinders the identification of shared and distinct patterns of brain network abnormalities across mental disorders. This study aimed to identify shared and distinct patterns of altered structural covariance across mental disorders.
Subject-level structural covariance aberrance in patients with mental disorders was investigated using individualized differential structural covariance network. This method inferred structural covariance aberrance at the individual level by measuring the degree of structural covariance in patients deviating from matched healthy controls (HCs). T1-weighted anatomical images of 513 participants (105, 98, 190 participants with depression, OCD and schizophrenia, respectively, and 130 age- and sex-matched HCs) were acquired and analyzed.
Patients with mental disorders exhibited notable heterogeneity in terms of altered edges, which were otherwise obscured by group-level analysis. The three disorders shared high difference variability in edges attached to the frontal network and the subcortical-cerebellum network, and they also exhibited disease-specific variability distributions. Despite notable variability, patients with the same disorder shared disease-specific groups of altered edges. Specifically, depression was characterized by altered edges attached to the subcortical-cerebellum network; OCD, by altered edges linking the subcortical-cerebellum and motor networks; and schizophrenia, by altered edges related to the frontal network.
These results have potential implications for understanding heterogeneity and facilitating personalized diagnosis and interventions for mental disorders.
This study examines how maximum emotional intelligence (EI) members can contribute to the emergence of team-level organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Based on integrating a strategic core role and multilevel theory, we developed and tested a model in which the maximum EI score in teams results in intrateam trust and consequently impacts team OCB and examined whether the indirect effect of maximum EI on team OCB through intrateam trust would be moderated by EI diversity and trust divergence in teams. The results from 129 project teams showed that the relationship of maximum EI with team OCB is mediated by intrateam trust and this relationship is stronger for lower levels of EI diversity and trust divergence than for higher levels of diversity and divergence. The findings advance our understanding of the role of EI in team settings. Our research has important implications for organizations attempting to develop the applied value of EI.
To date, empirical research exploring the complex mechanisms of when and how information seeking from supervisor affects newcomers' task-related outcomes remains in its infancy. With a sample of 394 newcomers and their supervisors, drawing on the conservation of resources theory and professional image construction theory, we proposed and confirmed two paradoxical paths regarding perceptions of professional image construction – concern about impairing competence-image and confidence in improving commitment-image – that connect newcomers' information seeking from supervisor with their emotional exhaustion during socialization and ultimately can elevate and degrade their task-related outcomes, respectively. In addition, we found that supervisors' favorable feedback weakened the relationship between information seeking from supervisor and competence-image impairment concern, whereas it strengthened the linkage between information seeking and commitment-image improvement confidence. This study thus provides a more comprehensive picture for scholars and practitioners.
It remains unclear whether all physical activity (PA) domains (e.g., occupation-related PA [OPA], transportation-related PA [TPA], and leisure-time PA [LTPA]) have equivalent beneficial relationships. We aimed to investigate the associations of OPA, TPA, and LTPA with depressive symptoms in adults.
We included and analyzed 31,221 participants (aged ≥18 years) from the cross-sectional 2007–2018 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The PA domains were assessed by a self-report questionnaire and categorized based on the PA guidelines. Depressive symptoms were measured by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire.
Participants achieving PA guidelines (≥150 min/week) were 26% (odds ratio [OR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68–0.80) and 43% (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.51–0.62) less likely to have depressive symptoms depending on total PA and LTPA, respectively, while OPA or TPA did not demonstrate lower risks of depressive symptoms. LTPA at levels of 1–149, 150–299, and ≥300 min/week was associated with 31% (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.60–0.78), 43% (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.49–0.67), and 51% (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.43–0.55) lower odds of depressive symptoms, respectively.
LTPA, but not OPA or TPA, was associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms at any amount, suggesting that significant mental health would benefit from increased PA, even at levels below the recommendation.
In recent years, autonomous control based on contact inspections in unknown environments is a new hot and difficult point in robotics research. This paper presents a new control law for unmanned aerial manipulator (UAM) to perform contact inspection tasks on vertical surfaces. The selected circular image feature decouples the position and attitude of UAM, so an image-based impedance control is proposed to control the position and track the contact force. The developed controller uses geometric methods to control the attitude. In addition, the designed aerial manipulator decouples the roll and pitch of the UAV from the UAV, which improves the system’s stability. Experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.
In the treatment of infertile patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) caused by the deletion of the azoospermia factor c region (AZFc) on the Y chromosome, synchronous and asynchronous surgical strategies are discussed. Clinical data from NOA patients with the AZFc deletion who underwent micro-TESE were analyzed retrospectively. The sperm retrieval rate (SRR) and sperm utilization rate of synchronous and asynchronous operation groups were followed up and compared. The fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, and cumulative live birth rate of ICSI in patients with successful sperm retrieval were compared between the two groups. The two groups had sperm utilization rates of 98.9% (93/94) and 50.0% (14/28), respectively. The asynchronous group’s sperm consumption rates were much lower than those of the synchronous operation group. Fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate of fresh transfer cycle, abortion rate, and cumulative live birth rate of patients in the synchronous operation group with fresh sperm, and the asynchronous operation group with thawed sperm, respectively, were 30.6% vs 33.8%, 33.8% vs 40.7%, 40.0% vs 12.5%, 30.4% vs 7.1%. Between the two groups, there was no significant difference. This suggests that individuals with NOA caused by the AZFc deletion have a high possibility of successfully acquiring sperm using micro-TESE and ICSI to conceive their own offspring. Synchronous micro-TESE is recommended to improve sperm utilization rate and the cumulative live birth rate.
This study presents zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf and O isotope data for granitic rocks in the Zijinshan ore field, southwestern Fujian Province, China. The intrusive rocks comprise monzogranite, granite and granodiorite. The magmatic zircon U–Pb ages from these granitic rocks can be divided into four episodes: episodes 1 (157.9–159.9 Ma) and 2 (141 Ma) in the Late Jurassic and episodes 3 (108.1–103.2 Ma) and 4 (97.5–99.7 Ma) in the Middle and Late Cretaceous, respectively. Patterns of rare-earth elements (REE) show enrichment in light REE and obvious negative Eu anomalies. These rocks are also enriched in Rb, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd and Hf, and depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The increasing La/Yb ratio and decreasing heavy REE content with decreasing age may imply an increasing contribution of mantle-derived materials from the Late Jurassic to Cretaceous. The zircon ϵHf(t) and δ18O values, ranging from −37.7 to −2.8 and 12.0 ‰ to 6.3 ‰, respectively, indicate that the lower crust is an important source of granitic rocks. There was a significant increase in ϵHf(t) values and a decrease in δ18O values in the younger magmatic episodes (3 and 4), which ranged from −11.4 to −0.6 and 10.7 to 6.3 ‰, respectively. This suggests an increasing contribution of mantle-derived magma to the crustal melts from the Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous in response to the changing regional tectonic setting from compression to extension and an increasing interaction between the crust and mantle.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.