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Saetaspongia so far cannot be confidently assigned to any class-level crown group. Clarifying its phylogenetic position requires new information provided by more detailed studies of previously described and/or new material. Some sponge fossils with the typical skeletal architecture of Saetaspongia have recently been recognized in the Cambrian (Stage 4) Balang Biota of Guizhou, China, including S. jianhensis new species and S. cf. S. densa. The new taxon is characterized by the following features: spicules are fine monaxons and are inclined to be loosely to densely arranged into plumose arrays; skeleton is composed primarily of one major plumose bundle, with an uncertain number (perhaps two) of small plumose arrays; and primary skeleton is occasionally interspersed with some irregularly oriented individual spicules. An additional specimen consisting of large monaxons, with plumose structures and overlying irregular coarse monaxons, closely fits the description and illustrations of previously described S. cf. S. densa. By combining information from previous studies and the present research, fossil evidence indicates that the plumose architecture is a critical feature diagnostic of Saetaspongia and that there are no hexactine-based spicules in this genus. The new material from the Balang Biota further supports the notion that Saetaspongia has a protomonaxonid rather than a hexactinellid affinity. Fossil evidence suggests that Saetaspongia had a wide biogeographic distribution during the early Cambrian and the stratigraphic distribution of this genus extends up to Stage 4.
To identify error-prone operational steps and key sites of self-contamination during donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE).
A total of 56 health care workers including 37 nurses and 19 physicians, were recruited to don and doff the PPE recommended by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Operational errors and sites of self-contamination were recorded using UV-fluorescent labeling and video surveillance.
Three main errors during donning were identified: choosing a loose-fitting coverall that was difficult to handle; ignoring to inspect the seal of N95 respirator or gloves; and forgetting to pull up the zipper completely. Four main errors during doffing were identified: removing the N95 respirator in a wrong way; touching the scrubs with contaminated hands and elbows; touching contaminated external surfaces of the goggles; and performing insufficient hand hygiene. Key sites that were easily contaminated during the doffing of PPE included left hand and wrist, left lower leg, chest, and left abdomen.
Identifying the steps prone to errors and key sites of self-contamination in the process of PPE donning and doffing can facilitate the training of PPE use and provide detailed evidence for optimizing standardized protocols to reduce contamination.
Seaweeds have numerous biologically active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, polyphenols and carotenoids, that are beneficial to human health. Although these benefits might be related to the synthesis, secretion or reabsorption of uric acid, no studies have explored the relationship between seaweeds consumption and hyperuricaemia (HUA) in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether seaweeds consumption is related to HUA in a large-scale adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 32 365 adults (17 328 men and 15 037 women) in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Frequency of seaweeds consumption was assessed by a validated self-administered FFQ. HUA was defined as serum uric acid levels >420 μmol/L in men and >350 μmol/L in women. The association between seaweeds consumption and HUA was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Restricted cubic spline functions were used for non-linearity tests. The prevalence of HUA in men and women was 21·17 % and 5·93 %, respectively. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, the OR (95 % CI) for HUA across seaweed consumption (g/1000 kcal per d) were 1·00 (reference) for level 1, 0·91 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·02) for level 2; 0·90 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·01) for level 3; 0·86 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·97) for level 4 in men and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·10) for level 2; 0·82 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·00) for level 3; 0·84 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·03) for level 4 in women, respectively. A negative correlation between seaweeds consumption and HUA in males but not in females was observed. Further studies are needed to explore the causal relationship.
To investigate the clinical impact of ventilator-associated events (VAEs) on adverse prognoses and risk factors for mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) based on an ICU healthcare-associated infection (ICU-HAI) registry.
A cohort study was conducted based on an ICU-HAI registry including 30,830 patients between 2015 and 2018.
The study was conducted using data from 5 adult ICUs of a referral hospital.
Adult patients in the ICU-HAI registry who received ≥4 consecutive IMV days.
Clinical outcomes and mortality risk factors for VAEs were analyzed using propensity score matching (PSM), multivariate regression models, and sensitivity analyses.
Of 6,426 included patients, 1,803 developed 1,899 VAEs. After PSM, patients with VAEs did have prolonged length of stay in the ICU and in the hospital, increased hospitalization costs, longer days on mechanical ventilation, higher proportion of ≥9 days on mechanical ventilation, higher rate of failure in extubating mechanical ventilation, and excess all-cause mortality in the ICU. Older age (adjusted OR [aOR], 1.02), higher APACHE II score on ICU admission (aOR, 1.06), pneumonia (aOR, 1.49), blood transfusion (aOR 1.43), immunosuppressive drugs (aOR, 1.69), central-line catheter (aOR, 2.06), and ≥2 VAEs in the ICU (aOR, 1.99) were associated with higher risks for all-cause mortality in an ICU.
Patients with VAEs indeed had poorer clinical outcomes. Older age, higher APACHE II score on ICU admission, pneumonia, blood transfusion, immunosuppressive drugs, central-line catheter, and ≥2 VAEs in the ICU were risk factors for all-cause mortality of VAE patients in the ICU.
The tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest with a highly selective and sensitive chemosensory system involved in complex physiological behaviors such as searching for food sources, feeding, courtship, and oviposition. However, effective management strategies for controlling the insect pest populations under threshold levels are lacking. Therefore, there is an urgent need to formulate eco-friendly pest control strategies based on the disruption of the insect chemosensory system. In this study, we identified 158 putative chemosensory genes based on transcriptomic and genomic data for S. litura, including 45 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs, nine were new), 23 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 60 odorant receptors (ORs, three were new), and 30 gustatory receptors (GRs, three were new), a number higher than those reported by previous transcriptome studies. Subsequently, we constructed phylogenetic trees based on these genes in moths and analyzed the dynamic expression of various genes in head capsules across larval instars using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nine genes–SlitOBP8, SlitOBP9, SlitOBP25, SlitCSP1, SlitCSP7, SlitCSP18, SlitOR34, SlitGR240, and SlitGR242–were highly expressed in the heads of 3- to 5-day-old S. litura larvae. The genes differentially expressed in olfactory organs during larval development might play crucial roles in the chemosensory system of S. litura larvae. Our findings substantially expand the gene inventory for S. litura and present potential target genes for further studies on larval feeding in S. litura.
Antipsychotics are widely used for treating patients with psychosis, and target threshold psychotic symptoms. Individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis are characterized by subthreshold psychotic symptoms. It is currently unclear who might benefit from antipsychotic treatment. Our objective was to apply a risk calculator (RC) to identify people that would benefit from antipsychotics.
Drawing on 400 CHR individuals recruited between 2011 and 2016, 208 individuals who received antipsychotic treatment were included. Clinical and cognitive variables were entered into an individualized RC for psychosis; personal risk was estimated and 4 risk components (negative symptoms-RC-NS, general function-RC-GF, cognitive performance-RC-CP, and positive symptoms-RC-PS) were constructed. The sample was further stratified according to the risk level. Higher risk was defined based on the estimated risk score (20% or higher).
In total, 208 CHR individuals received daily antipsychotic treatment of an olanzapine-equivalent dose of 8.7 mg with a mean administration duration of 58.4 weeks. Of these, 39 (18.8%) developed psychosis within 2 years. A new index of factors ratio (FR), which was derived from the ratio of RC-PS plus RC-GF to RC-NS plus RC-CP, was generated. In the higher-risk group, as FR increased, the conversion rate decreased. A small group (15%) of CHR individuals at higher-risk and an FR >1 benefitted from the antipsychotic treatment.
Through applying a personal risk assessment, the administration of antipsychotics should be limited to CHR individuals with predominantly positive symptoms and related function decline. A strict antipsychotic prescription strategy should be introduced to reduce inappropriate use.
The aim of this study was to assess the current status of disease-related knowledge and to analyze the relationship among the general condition, illness perception, and psychological status of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 patients using convenience sampling. The general questionnaire, disease-related knowledge questionnaire of COVID-19, Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used to measure the current status of participants.
The overall average score of the disease-related knowledge of patients with COVID-19 was (79.19 ± 14.25), the self-care situation was positively correlated with knowledge of prevention and control (r = 0.265; P = 0.004) and total score of disease-related knowledge (r = 0.206; P = 0.025); the degree of anxiety was negatively correlated with the knowledge of diagnosis and treatment (r = −0.182; P = 0.049). The score of disease-related knowledge was negatively correlated with negative cognition (volatility, consequences, emotional statements) and negative emotions (tension, fatigue, depression) (P < 0.05); positively correlated with positive cognition (disease coherence) and positive emotion (self-esteem) (P < 0.05).
It was recommended that we should pay more attention to the elderly and low-income groups, and increase the knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and self-care in the future health education for patients.
The aim of the present study was to examine whether serum Zn concentrations were associated with metabolic risk factors in Chinese children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study including 3241 participants, aged 6 to 17 years, from Jiangsu, China. Metabolic risk factors included fasting glucose (FG), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Data were analysed using multi-variable linear regression and generalised additive models, which were adjusted for age, sex, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, BMI and region of residence, to assess the associations of serum Zn concentrations with metabolic risk factors. We observed a negative association between serum Zn concentrations and FG (coefficient = −0·532; 95 % CI −0·569, −0·495; P < 0·001). Moreover, TC (coefficient = 0·175; 95 % CI 0·127, 0·222; P < 0·001), HDL-cholesterol (coefficient = 0·137; 95 % CI 0·082, 0·193; P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (coefficient = 0·195; 95 % CI 0·128, 0·263; P < 0·001) were found to be positively associated with Zn levels. A generalised additive model showed that the negative association between serum Zn and FG was weak at lower serum Zn concentrations and was stronger with the increase in serum Zn concentrations. Additionally, a U-shaped association between serum Zn and TAG was observed. Serum Zn concentrations were associated with FG, TC, TAG, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in Chinese children and adolescents. Lower levels of serum Zn were more likely related to a poor metabolic status.
It was reported that about 10% of people suffer from painful knee arthritis, and a quarter of them were severely disabled. The core activities of daily living were severely limited by knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In order to reduce knee pain and prolong the life of the knee joint, there has been an increasing demand on the development of exoskeletons, for prevention and treatment. The course of KOA was closely related to the biomechanics of knee joint, and the pathogenesis was summarized based on the biomechanics of knee joint. For the prevention and clinical treatment, exoskeletons are classified into three categories: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation after the operation. Furthermore, the design concepts, actuators, sensors, control strategies, and evaluation criteria were presented. Finally, the shortcomings and limitations were summarized. It is useful for researchers to develop suitable exoskeletons in the future.
We aim to determine the correlation between parental rearing, personality traits, and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in different quantiles. In particular, we created an intermediary effect model in which parental rearing affects OCD through personality traits. All predictors were measured at the time of the survey, comprising parental rearing (paternal rearing and maternal rearing), demographics (grade and gender), and personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, and psychoticism). These results suggest that (a) paternal emotional warmth was negatively correlated with OCD at the 0.40–0.80 quantile, while maternal emotional warmth was positively correlated with the OCD at the 0.45–0.69 quantile. (b) The correlation between negative parental rearing and OCD ranged from the 0.67 to 0.95 quantile for paternal punishment, 0.14–0.82 quantile for paternal overprotection, 0.05–0.36 and >0.50 quantile for maternal over-intervention and overprotection, and 0.08–0.88 quantile for maternal rejection. (c) Extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism were not only associated with OCD in a particular quantile but also mediated between parental rearing (namely parental emotional warmth, paternal punishment, paternal overprotection, maternal rejection, maternal over-intervention, and overprotection) and OCD. These findings provide targets for early interventions of OCD to improve the form of family education and personality traits and warrant validation.
Anxiety disorders are widespread across the world. A systematic understanding of the disease burden, temporal trend and risk factors of anxiety disorders provides the essential foundation for targeted public policies on mental health at the national, regional, and global levels.
The estimation of anxiety disorders in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 using systematic review was conducted to describe incidence, prevalence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 204 countries and regions from 1990 to 2019. We calculated the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) to quantify the temporal trends in anxiety disorders burden by sex, region and age over the past 30 years and analysed the impact of epidemiological and demographic changes on anxiety disorders.
Globally, 45.82 [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 37.14, 55.62] million incident cases of anxiety disorders, 301.39 million (95% UI: 252.63, 356.00) prevalent cases and 28.68 (95% UI: 19.86, 39.32) million DALYs were estimated in 2019. Although the overall age-standardised burden rate of anxiety disorders remained stable over the past three decades, the latest absolute number of anxiety disorders increased by 50% from 1990. We observed huge disparities in both age-standardised burden rate and changing trend of anxiety disorders in sex, country and age. In 2019, 7.07% of the global DALYs due to anxiety disorders were attributable to bullying victimisation, mainly among the population aged 5–39 years, and the proportion increased in almost all countries and territories compared with 1990.
Anxiety disorder is still the most common mental illness in the world and has a striking impact on the global burden of disease. Controlling potential risk factors, such as bullying, establishing effective mental health knowledge dissemination and diversifying intervention strategies adapted to specific characteristics will reduce the burden of anxiety disorders.
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) play an essential role in the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, and they have been identified in many laboratory animals and in humans. However, the information of ICC in lower animals is still very limited. In the present study, ICC were identified in the gastric muscularis mucosae of an amphibian—the Chinese giant salamander, by c-Kit immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. ICC showed c-Kit immunoreactivity and had spindle-shaped cell bodies and 1–2 long processes. ICC were located between smooth muscle cells (SMC) in gastric muscularis mucosae. Ultrastructurally, ICC appeared as polygon-, spindle-, and awl-shaped with long cytoplasmic prolongations between SMC. ICC had distinctive characteristics, such as nuclei with peripheral electron-dense heterochromatin, caveolae, and abundant intracytoplasmatic vacuoles, mitochondria, and rough endoplasmic reticula. Moreover, lamellar bodies and two types of condensed granules were observed in the cytoplasm of ICC. Notably, ICC establish close contacts with each other. Moreover, ICC establish gap junctions with SMC. In addition, ICC were frequently observed close to nerve fibers. In summary, the present study demonstrated the presence of ICC in the gastric muscularis mucosae of the Chinese giant salamander.
The prevalence of central obesity in the total population has been reported in numerous studies. However, information on the prevalence of central obesity within normal-category BMI is scant. In the present study, we examined the profiles of central obesity among normal-weight children and adolescents. A total of 29 516 (14 226 boys and 15 290 girls) normal-weight children and adolescents (excluding underweight, overweight and obesity) aged 7–18 years were included in the final analysis. Central obesity was defined by the international age- and sex-specific cut-offs of waist circumference (WC) and threshold of waist:height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0·5). All subjects were classified into four groups (Q1–Q4) according to the age- and sex-specific quartiles of BMI, those in the upper fourth (Q4) were defined as ‘high-normal BMI’ and those in the lower fourth (Q1) were defined as ‘low-normal BMI’. The prevalence of central obesity as measured by WC was 9·90 (95 % CI 9·41, 10·39) % for boys and 8·11 (95 % CI 7·68, 8·54) % for girls; by WHtR was 2·97 (95 % CI 2·69, 3·25) % for boys and 2·44 (95 % CI 2·20, 2·68) % for girls. Subjects in the Q4 group had a much higher prevalence of central obesity than their counterparts in the Q1 group (P < 0·01). Our findings suggest that the health risks of children with normal-weight central obesity may be missed when BMI is used alone as a measure; it is meaningful to include WC in clinical practice and to include the simple message ‘Keep your waist to less than half your height’.
The impact of diet on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CVD has been investigated widely, but few studies have investigated the association between dietary patterns (DP) and the predicted CVD, derived from reduced rank regression (RRR). The objectives of this study were to derive DP using RRR and principal component analysis (PCA) and investigate their associations with the MetS and estimated 10-year atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). We used the baseline dataset from the Xinjiang multi-ethnic cohort study in China, collected from June 2018 to May 2019. A total of 14 982 subjects aged 35–74 years from Urumqi, Huo Cheng and Mo Yu were included in the analysis. The 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated using the Chinese ASCVD risk equations. The associations of DP with the MetS and 10-year ASCVD were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. In Urumqi and Mo Yu, the increased RRR DP score was associated with a higher OR of having the MetS and with a higher OR of elevated 10-year ASCVD risk. However, only the first DP determined by PCA in Urumqi was inversely associated with the MetS and elevated 10-year ASCVD risk. The prevalence of the MetS and elevated ASCVD risk in urban population is higher than that in rural areas. Our results may help nutritionists develop more targeted dietary strategies to prevent the MetS and ASCVD in different regions in China.
A series of new synthetic armored cables were developed and tested to ensure that they were suitable for use with the RECoverable Autonomous Sonde (RECAS), which is a newly designed freezing-in thermal ice probe. The final version of the cable consists of two concentric conductors that can be used as the power and signal lines. Two polyfluoroalkoxy jackets are used for electrical insulation (one for insulation between conductors, and the other for insulation of the outer conductor). The outer insulation layer is coated by polyurethane jacket to seal the connections between the cable and electrical units. The 0.65 mm thick strength member is made from aramid fibers woven together. To hold these aramid fibers in place, a sheathing layer was produced from a polyamide fabric cover net. The outer diameter of the final version of the cable is ~6.1 mm. The permissible bending radius is as low as 17–20 mm. The maximal breaking force under straight tension is ~12.2 kN. The cable weight is only ~0.061 kg m−1. The mechanical and electrical properties and environmental suitability of the cable were determined through laboratory testing and joint testing with the probe.
Based on the public data from the health departments of Tianjin and Shenzhen, we conducted a comparative analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic situation between these 2 cities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of public data in epidemic prevention and control of COVID-19, providing a scientific advice for the subsequent mitigation and containment of COVID-19 prevalence.
Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia hydatigena formerly referred to as Cysticercus tenuicollis is a disease of veterinary importance that constitutes a significant threat to livestock production worldwide, especially in endemic regions due to condemnation of visceral organs and mortality rate of infected young animals. While the genetic diversity among parasites is found to be potentially useful in many areas of research including molecular diagnostics, epidemiology and control, that of T. hydatigena across the globe remains poorly understood. In this study, analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of adult worms and larval stages of T. hydatigena isolated from dogs, sheep and a wild boar in China showed that the population structure consists of two major haplogroups with very high nucleotide substitutions involving synonymous and non-synonymous changes. Compared with other cestodes such as Echinococcus spp., the genetic variation observed between the haplogroups is sufficient for the assignment of major haplotype or genotype division as both groups showed a total of 166 point-mutation differences between the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences. Preliminary analysis of a nuclear protein-coding gene (pepck) did not reveal any peculiar changes between both groups which suggests that these variants may only differ in their mitochondrial makeup.
In order to realize the online allocation of collaborative processing resource of smart workshop in the context of cloud manufacturing, a multi-objective optimization model of workshop collaborative resources (MOM-WCR) was proposed. Considering the optimization objectives of processing time, processing cost, product qualification rate, and resource utilization, MOM-WCR was constructed. Based on the time sequence of workshop processing tasks, the workshop collaborative manufacturing resource was integrated in MOM-WCR. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) was adopted to simplified the multi-objective problem into the single-objective problem. Then, the improved firefly algorithm which integrated the particle swarm algorithm (IFA-PSA) was used to solve MOM-WCR. Finally, a group of connecting rod processing experiments were used to verify the model proposed in this paper. The results show that the model is feasible in the application of workshop-level resource allocation in the context of cloud manufacturing, and the improved firefly algorithm shows good performance in solving the multi-objective resource allocation problem.
Background: The number of patients with end-stage renal disease and acute kidney injury in China is large and increasing year by year. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is one of the important treatment methods. However, long-time CRRT would inevitably lead to CLABSI, which would seriously affect the treatment and prognosis of the patient. Although CLABSIs can be prevented and controlled, the rate of CLABSI in China is still higher than in other countries. Therefore, it is urgent to find new intervention methods on the basis of existing methods. Surveillance is the prerequisite of infection prevention and control. We sought to develop a risk prediction model for CLABSI in patients with CRRT according to uncontrollable risk factors, which could be used for early assessment and screening of high-risk infection groups. Such a tool would bring the supervision and infection control to the forefront in addressing these issues. Methods: We selected 3,103 CRRT patients in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2013 to December 2018 using the hospital infection and infectious disease monitoring module of electronic medical records (EMR) system with the integration and elimination criteria. Data mining and feature selection were performed using Weka software. Separately, prediction models developed by Weka software and SPSS software were compared with each other using the area under the curve (AUC) method to assess the performance of the forecasting models. Result: The incidence of CLABSI in CRRT patients was 8.01 per 1,000 catheter days (238 of 29,711). According to the multifactor regression analysis by SPSS software, the retaining time of dialysis catheter, C-reactive protein levels, total bilirubin, acute pancreatitis, and systemic inflammation reaction syndrome were the risk factors. According to the Youden’s index, the cutoff point of the retaining time of dialysis catheter was 5.5 days; the cutoff point of CRP was 112.5mg/L; and the cutoff point of total bilirubin was 14.15 μmol/L. The prediction models of CLABSI for CRRT patients were developed: The AUC of the prediction model developed by SPSS software was 0.763 (95% CI, 0.717–0.809). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the AUCs of the prediction models developed separately by Weka software using Bayes, logistic regression analysis, multiple layer Perceptron and J48, and SPSS software through logistic regression analysis were between 0.6 and 0.8. Using the down-sampling technique, the AUC ranged between 0.7 and 0.9, and the sensitivity, precision, and κ value increased. Thus, these models had definite clinical significance. Conclusion: The prediction models of CLABSI for CRRT patients, developed based on the big healthcare data, not only had good judgment ability, but also had good application value for individual evaluations and the target population.
Funding: This study was supported by the Health Commission of Sichuan Province.
The Yangtze Block in South China constitutes an important Precambrian landmass in the present East Asian continent. The Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions of the Hengdan Group in the NW Yangtze Block record essential information for deciphering the Neoproterozoic tectonics along the NW margin. However, its depositional age, provenance and tectonic properties remain uncertain. Here, a combined analysis of detrital zircon U–Pb dating and geochemistry is performed on representative samples from the Hengdan Group. Concordant dating results of samples from the bottom and upper parts constrain the maximum depositional age at c. 720 Ma. Detrital zircon age patterns of samples reveal a uniformly pronounced age peak at c. 915–720 Ma, which is consistent with the magmatic pulses in domains at the NW end of the Yangtze Block. In addition, these samples display left-sloping post-Archaean Australian shale (PAAS)-normalized rare-earth element patterns and variable trace element patterns, resembling sediments accumulated in a basin related to an active continental margin geodynamic setting. Provenance analysis reveals that the main sources featured intermediate to felsic components, which experienced rapid erosion and sedimentation. These integrated new investigations, along with previous compilations, indicate that the Hengdan Group might have been deposited in a fore-arc basin controlled by subduction beneath the Bikou Terrane. Thus, such interpretation further supports proposals for subduction-related tectonics along the western margin of the Yangtze Block during the early Neoproterozoic.