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Rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) is the most problematic weed in Australia, with evolved resistance to multiple herbicide sites of action. Selection pressure by cinmethylin (Group 30, a fatty-acid thioesterase inhibitor) has been limited, because few populations have been exposed to the herbicide since its introduction in 2019. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of L. rigidum populations to this new herbicide. From a screening of almost 500 field populations in 2020, 28 potentially resistant populations were further investigated in a dose–response experiment. Seedlings from five populations surviving treatments of 250 or 375 g ai ha−1 cinmethylin were grown to maturity and seeds were harvested. The level of resistance found among the five putative-resistant parental populations of L. rigidum was negligible. In one population, one round of selection with cinmethylin resulted in a 2-fold increase in the lethal dose causing 50% mortality in the progeny population, although this dose was still only one-sixth of the recommended field rate of cinmethylin. Having a unique site of action, cinmethylin is a viable preemergence herbicide option to control existing multiple-resistance populations of L. rigidum. Comprehensive field monitoring and recurrent selection studies under controlled environmental conditions are needed to better ascertain the risk of L. rigidum evolving a high level of resistance to cinmethylin, although current data suggest that this risk is relatively low.
The control of multiple-resistant wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations in no-till Australian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops has relied upon 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides over the last decade. Two R. raphanistrum populations identified as putatively resistant to pyrasulfotole + bromoxynil in an initial large-scale screening trial were characterized and confirmed to be 5- to 8-fold (comparison of LD50 values) less sensitive than the susceptible control population to the HPPD inhibitor pyrasulfotole when plants were treated at the 4-leaf stage. The two pyrasulfotole-resistant populations exhibited up to 4-fold resistance to the coformulated herbicide mixture pyrasulfotole + bromoxynil and up to 9- and 11-fold cross-resistance to mesotrione and topramezone postemergence, respectively. A small-plot trial was conducted in the field from which of one of the populations suspected of resistance was originally collected. Pyrasulfotole + bromoxynil or topramezone + bromoxynil applied postemergence delivered reduced R. raphanistrum control (79% to 87%), whereas mesotrione applied preemergence was >99% effective. We report here the first case of field resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in R. raphanistrum, caused by 12 yr of continuous reliance on that mode of action. The mitigation of herbicide resistance in continuous no-till cropping requires a constant optimization of the herbicide technology via alternation and mixtures of multiple sites of action, use of preemergence herbicides, and ensuring postemergence herbicides are applied at the most sensitive plant growth stages.
Herbicide resistance, documented in many economically damaging weed species, is a major threat to global crop production. The injudicious use of herbicides, often in the absence of diverse weed control strategies, poses an immense selection pressure on weed communities for resistance evolution and weed adaptive traits such as high seed dormancy. This study evaluates the interaction among developing herbicide resistance, seed size, and seed dormancy of ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus Roth), wild oat (Avena fatua L.), and hare barley [Hordeum leporinum Link; syn. Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcang.] collected from within intensively managed fields (in-crop) in comparison with populations in surrounding ruderal (non-crop disturbed) areas with no history of exposure to herbicides within the Western Australian grainbelt. Seed size of the three species varied by farming system (continuous cereal-intensive annual crops, diverse annual crops, pasture based) and habitat (in-crop, ruderal). Field populations of H. leporinum and B. diandrus tended to have greater seed size compared with ruderal populations. Larger seeds had significantly more dormancy in all three weed species. Field-collected populations that were exposed to herbicide applications for at least the past 5 yr exhibited significantly greater seed dormancy compared with their counterparts present in ruderal areas within the same geographic area. The association between increased seed dormancy and developing multiple herbicide resistance further complicates effective weed management.
Herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are widely grown throughout the United States and Canada. These crop-trait technologies can enhance weed management and therefore can be an important component of integrated weed management (IWM) programs. Concomitantly, evolution of HR weed populations has become ubiquitous in agricultural areas where HR crops are grown. Nevertheless, crop cultivars with new or combined (stacked) HR traits continue to be developed and commercialized. This review, based on a symposium held at the Western Society of Weed Science annual meeting in 2021, examines the impact of HR crops on HR weed management in the U.S. Great Plains, U.S. Pacific Northwest, and the Canadian Prairies over the past 25 yr and their past and future contributions to IWM. We also provide an industry perspective on the future of HR crop development and the role of HR crops in resistance management. Expanded options for HR traits in both major and minor crops are expected. With proper stewardship, HR crops can reduce herbicide-use intensity and help reduce selection pressure on weed populations. However, their proper deployment in cropping systems must be carefully planned by considering a diverse crop rotation sequence with multiple HR and non-HR crops and maximizing crop competition to effectively manage HR weed populations. Based on past experiences in the cultivation of HR crops and associated herbicide use in the western United States and Canada, HR crops have been important determinants of both the selection and management of HR weeds.
Wild oat is a herbicide resistance-prone global weed species that causes significant economic losses in dryland and horticultural agriculture. As a result, there has been a significant research effort to control this species. A major impediment to this research is the seed coat-mediated dormancy of wild oat, which requires a labor-intensive incision or puncturing of the seed coat to initiate seed germination. This study defines the most efficient settings of a mechanical thresher to overcome wild oat seed dormancy and then validates these settings using multiple populations collected from the Western Australian grain belt. We also compare the effects of rapid mechanical scarification and known germination stimulus tactics such as scarification with sulfuric acid (H2SO4), partial endosperm removal, sandpaper scarification of the seed coat, and immersion in sodium nitroprusside (NO donor SNP) solution on wild oat seedling growth rate. Threshing treatment of 1,500 rpm for 5 s provides equivalent germination compared with manually puncturing individual wild oat seeds, with no difference in seedling relative growth rate. The mechanical scarification of seeds using the thresher resulted in greater germination (66%) than H2SO4 scarification (0%), partial endosperm removal (10%), sandpaper seed coat scarification (25%), and exposure to NO donor SNP (34%). This study demonstrates that the physical dormancy of wild oat can be rapidly overcome using a commercially available mechanical thresher.
The objective of this paper was to review the reproductive biology, herbicide-resistant (HR) biotypes, pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF), and potential for transfer of alleles from HR to herbicide-susceptible grass weeds including barnyardgrass, creeping bentgrass, Italian ryegrass, johnsongrass, rigid (annual) ryegrass, and wild oats. The widespread occurrence of HR grass weeds is at least partly due to PMGF, particularly in obligate outcrossing species such as rigid ryegrass. Creeping bentgrass, a wind-pollinated turfgrass species, can efficiently disseminate herbicide resistance alleles via PMGF and movement of seeds and stolons. The genus Agrostis contains about 200 species, many of which are sexually compatible and produce naturally occurring hybrids and hybrids with species in the genus Polypogon. The self-incompatibility, extremely high outcrossing rate, and wind pollination in Italian ryegrass clearly point to PMGF as a major mechanism by which herbicide resistance alleles can spread across agricultural landscapes, resulting in abundant genetic variation within populations and low genetic differentiation among populations. Italian ryegrass can readily hybridize with perennial ryegrass and rigid ryegrass due to their similarity in chromosome numbers (2n = 14), resulting in interspecific gene exchange. Johnsongrass, barnyardgrass, and wild oats are self-pollinated species, so the potential for PMGF is relatively low and limited to short distances; however, seeds can easily shatter upon maturity before crop harvest, leading to wider dispersal. The occurrence of PMGF in reviewed grass weed species, even at a low rate, is greater than that of spontaneous mutations conferring herbicide resistance in weeds and thus can contribute to the spread of herbicide resistance alleles. This review indicates that the transfer of herbicide resistance alleles occurs under field conditions at varying levels depending on the grass weed species.
Herbicide-resistant (HR) kochia is a growing problem in the Great Plains region of Canada and the United States. Resistance to up to four herbicide sites of action, including photosystem II inhibitors, acetolactate synthase inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase inhibitor glyphosate have been reported in many areas of this region. Despite being present in the United States since 1993/1994, auxinic-HR kochia is a recent and growing phenomenon in Canada. This study was designed to characterize 1) the level of resistance and 2) patterns of cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr in 12 putative auxinic-HR kochia populations from western Canada. The incidence of dicamba-resistant individuals ranged among populations from 0% to 85%, while fluroxypyr-resistant individuals ranged from 0% to 45%. In whole-plant dose-response bioassays, the populations exhibited up to 6.5-fold resistance to dicamba and up to 51.5-fold resistance to fluroxypyr based on visible injury 28 d after application. Based on plant survival estimates, the populations exhibited up to 3.7-fold resistance to dicamba and up to 72.5-fold resistance to fluroxypyr. Multiple patterns of synthetic auxin resistance were observed, in which one population from Cypress County, Alberta, was resistant to dicamba but not fluroxypyr, whereas another from Rocky View County, Alberta, was resistant to fluroxypyr but not dicamba based on single-dose population screening and dose-response bioassays. These results suggest that multiple mechanisms may confer resistance to dicamba and/or fluroxypyr in Canadian kochia populations. Further research is warranted to determine these mechanisms. Farmers are urged to adopt proactive nonchemical weed management practices in an effort to preserve efficacy of the remaining herbicide options available for control of HR kochia.
Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a weed management technique that intercepts and destroys weed seeds before they replenish the soil weed seedbank and can be used to control herbicide-resistant weeds in global cropping systems. Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) is a problematic, globally distributed weed species that is considered highly susceptible to HWSC, as it retains much of its seed on the plant during grain harvest. However, previous studies have demonstrated that R. raphanistrum is capable of adapting its life cycle, in particular its flowering time, to allow individuals more time to mature and potentially shed seeds before harvest, thereby evading HWSC interception. This study compared the vegetative growth plus physiological and ecological fitness of an early-flowering R. raphanistrum biotype with an unselected genetically related biotype to determine whether physiological costs of early flowering exist when in competition with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Early flowering time adaptation in R. raphanistrum did not change the relative growth rate or competitive ability of R. raphanistrum. However, the height of first flower was reduced in the early flowering time–selected population, indicating that this population would retain more pods below the typical harvest cutting height (15 cm) used in HWSC. The presence of wheat competition (160 to 200 plants m−2) increased flowering height in the early flowering time–selected population, which would likely increase the susceptibility of early-flowering R. raphanistrum plants to HWSC. Overall, early-flowering adaption in R. raphanistrum is a possible strategy to escape being captured by the HWSC; however, increasing crop competition is likely to be an effective strategy to maintain the effectiveness of HWSC.
Since the commercialization of herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant crops, their adoption has increased rapidly. Multiple herbicide resistance traits in crops such as canola (Brassica napus L.), corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] have become available in recent years, and management of their volunteers needs attention to prevent interference and yield loss in rotational crops. The objectives of this review were to summarize HR crop traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), canola, corn, cotton, rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean, sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.); assess their potential for volunteerism; and review existing literature on the interference of HR crop volunteers, yield loss, and their management in rotational crops. HR crop volunteers are problem weeds in agronomic cropping systems, and the impact of volunteerism depends on several factors, such as crop grown in rotation, the density of volunteers, management practices, and microclimate. Interference of imidazolinone-resistant (IR) barley or wheat volunteers can be a problem in rotational crops, particularly when IR crops such as canola or wheat are grown. HR canola volunteers are abundant in the Northern Great Plains due to high fecundity, seed loss before or during harvest, and secondary seed dormancy, and they can interfere in crops grown in rotation such as flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), field peas (Pisum sativum L.), and soybean. HR corn volunteers are competitive in crops grown in rotation such as corn, cotton, soybean, and sugarbeet, with yield loss depending on the density of HR corn volunteers. Volunteers of HR cotton, rice, soybean, and sugarbeet are not major concerns and can be controlled with existing herbicides. Herbicide options would be limited if the crop volunteers are multiple HR; therefore, recording the cultivar planted the previous year and selecting the appropriate herbicide are important. The increasing use of 2,4-D, dicamba, glufosinate, and glyphosate in North American cropping systems requires research on herbicide interactions and alternative herbicides or methods for controlling multiple HR crop volunteers.
Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) refers to the transfer of genetic information (alleles) from one plant to another compatible plant. With the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds, PMGF plays an important role in the transfer of resistance alleles from HR to susceptible weeds; however, little attention is given to this topic. The objective of this work was to review reproductive biology, PMGF studies, and interspecific hybridization, as well as potential for herbicide resistance alleles to transfer in the economically important broadleaf weeds including common lambsquarters, giant ragweed, horseweed, kochia, Palmer amaranth, and waterhemp. The PMGF studies involving these species reveal that transfer of herbicide resistance alleles routinely occurs under field conditions and is influenced by several factors, such as reproductive biology, environment, and production practices. Interspecific hybridization studies within Amaranthus and Ambrosia spp. show that herbicide resistance allele transfer is possible between species of the same genus but at relatively low levels. The widespread occurrence of HR weed populations and high genetic diversity is at least partly due to PMGF, particularly in dioecious species such as Palmer amaranth and waterhemp compared with monoecious species such as common lambsquarters and horseweed. Prolific pollen production in giant ragweed contributes to PMGF. Kochia, a wind-pollinated species can efficiently disseminate herbicide resistance alleles via both PMGF and tumbleweed seed dispersal, resulting in widespread occurrence of multiple HR kochia populations. The findings from this review verify that intra- and interspecific gene flow can occur and, even at a low rate, could contribute to the rapid spread of herbicide resistance alleles. More research is needed to determine the role of PMGF in transferring multiple herbicide resistance alleles at the landscape level.
This report updates the incidence of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds across western Canada from the last report covering 2007 to 2011. This third round of preharvest surveys was conducted in Saskatchewan in 2014 and 2015, Manitoba in 2016, and Alberta in 2017, totaling 798 randomly selected cropped fields across 28 million ha. In addition, we screened 1,108 weed seed samples submitted by prairie growers or industry between 2012 and 2016. Of 578 fields where wild oat seed was collected, 398 (69%) had an HR biotype: 62% acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor (WSSA Group 1) resistant, 34% acetolactate synthase inhibitor (Group 2) resistant, and 27% Group 1+2 resistant (vs. 41%, 12%, and 8%, respectively, in the previous second-round surveys from 2007 to 2009). The sharp increase in Group 2 resistance is the result of reliance on this site of action to manage Group 1 resistance and the resultant increased selection pressure. There are no POST options to control Group 1+2–HR wild oat in wheat or barley. The rise of Group 2 resistance in green foxtail (11% of sampled fields) and yellow foxtail (17% of Manitoba fields), which was not detected in the previous survey round, parallels the results for wild oat resistance. Various Group 2–HR populations of broadleaf weeds were confirmed, with cleavers and field pennycress being most abundant. Results of submission-sample testing reflected survey results. Although not included in this study, a postharvest survey in Alberta in 2017 indicated widespread Groups 2, 4 (dicamba), and 9 (glyphosate) resistance in kochia and Group 2 resistance in Russian thistle. These surveys bring greater awareness of HR weeds to growers and land managers at local and regional levels, and highlight the urgency to preserve herbicide susceptibility in our key economic weed species.
Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) is a problematic and economically damaging dicotyledonous weed infesting crops in many regions of the world. Resistance to the auxinic herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba is widespread in Western Australian R. raphanistrum populations, with the resistance mechanism appearing to involve alterations in the physiological response to synthetic auxins and in plant defense. This study aimed to determine whether these alterations cause inhibition in plant growth or reproduction that could potentially be exploited to manage 2,4-D–resistant populations in cropping areas. Therefore, the morphology and seed production of resistant and susceptible populations were compared in an outdoor pot study, with plants grown in the presence and absence of competition by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The susceptible and resistant R. raphanistrum populations were equally suppressed by wheat competition, with plant growth and seed production being decreased by approximately 50%. Although resistant populations produced less vegetative biomass than susceptible populations, there was no negative association between resistance and seed production. Therefore, it is unlikely that any nonherbicidal management practices will be more efficacious on 2,4-D–resistant than 2,4-D–susceptible R. raphanistrum populations.
Herbicide resistance has increased the need for novel weed control strategies. Fluridone has herbicidal as well as potential germination stimulant activity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fluridone as a fall-applied germination stimulant for weed control and to assess rotational crop tolerance. Fall-applied fluridone was compared with a nontreated control in areas established with false cleavers, volunteer canola, and wild oat at Lacombe, AB, in 2014–2015 and 2015–2016, and at St Albert, AB, in 2015–2016. In the fall, there was a trend for weed densities to be higher in fluridone treatments than in untreated controls across site-years. The stimulatory effect of fluridone on weed germination was not statistically significant in fall assessments, while the weed control effect was significant in 33% of spring assessments. While fluridone reduced weed biomass for some site-years, it also reduced canola crop emergence and biomass at St Albert in 2015–2016, and caused injury symptoms on wheat and field pea. Risk of carryover to subsequent crops outweighed the benefits of using fluridone in the fall to stimulate weed germination in this study.
As chemical management options for weeds become increasingly limited due to selection for herbicide resistance, investigation of additional nonchemical tools becomes necessary. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a methodology of weed management that targets and destroys weed seeds that are otherwise dispersed by harvesters following threshing. It is not known whether problem weeds in western Canada retain their seeds in sufficient quantities until harvest at a height suitable for collection. A study was conducted at three sites over 2 yr to determine whether retention and height criteria were met by wild oat, false cleavers, and volunteer canola. Wild oat consistently shed seeds early, but seed retention was variable, averaging 56% at the time of wheat swathing, with continued losses until direct harvest of wheat and fababean. The majority of retained seeds were >45 cm above ground level, suitable for collection. Cleavers seed retention was highly variable by site-year, but generally greater than wild oat. The majority of seed was retained >15 cm above ground level and would be considered collectable. Canola seed typically had >95% retention, with the majority of seed retained >15 cm above ground level. The suitability ranking of the species for management with HWSC was canola>cleavers>wild oat. Efficacy of HWSC systems in western Canada will depend on the target species and site- and year-specific environmental conditions.
The Harrington Seed Destructor (HSD), a novel weed control technology, has been highly effective in Australian cropping systems. To investigate its applicability to conditions in western Canada, stationary threshing was conducted to determine the impact of weed species, seed size, seed number, chaff load, and chaff type on efficacy of seed destruction. Control varied depending on species, with a range of 97.7% to 99.8%. Sieve-sized volunteer canola seed had a linear relationship of increasing control with increasing 1,000-seed weight. However, with greater than 98% control across all tested seed weights, it is unlikely that seed size alone will significantly influence control. Consistently high levels of control were observed at all tested seed densities (10 seeds to 1 million seeds). The response of weed seed control to chaff load was quadratic, but a narrow range of consistently high control (>97%) was again observed. Chaff type had a significant effect on weed seed control (98% to 98.6%); however, seed control values in canola chaff were likely confounded by a background presence of volunteer canola. Overall, the five parameters studied statistically influence control of weed seeds with the HSD. However, small differences between treatments are unlikely to affect the biological impact of the machine, which provides high levels of control for those weed seeds that can be introduced into the harvester.
The response of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) green foxtail biotypes to increasing dosages of trifluralin, applied PPI in rapeseed and preemergence incorporated (PEI) in wheat, was investigated in field experiments in 1989 and 1990. Differences in response between the biotypes to PPI- and PEI-trifluralin were 7- and 12-fold, respectively, based on density and shoot biomass determinations 4 wk after emergence. Nine- and 14-times higher dosages of PPI- and PEI-trifluralin, respectively, were required to reduce R-seed production by 50% than to reduce S-seed production by the same amount. At the recommended trifluralin dosage in rapeseed (1.4 kg ha−1), the density of S-plants 4 wk after emergence was reduced by 84% compared with untreated plots, whereas the density of R-plants was reduced by only 4%. The effective kill (seed yield reduction) was 99% and 42%, respectively. At the recommended dosage in wheat (0.9 kg ha−1), the density of S-plants 4 wk after emergence was reduced by over 99% compared with less than 36% for R-plants. The effective kill was 97% and 14%, respectively. Based on determination of effective kill, the selection pressure of trifluralin on green foxtail is greater when the chemical is applied PPI in rapeseed than when applied PEI in wheat, even though initial density reductions are less in the former than the latter.
The response of trifluralin-susceptible (S) and -resistant (R) green foxtail biotypes to herbicides belonging to several chemical groups was compared to determine the cross-resistance pattern of the R-biotype. Dose-response experiments conducted in the growth chamber indicated that R-green foxtail was resistant to other dinitroanilines and a chemically unrelated mitotic disrupter herbicide, but not to nine other herbicides belonging to seven chemical families. The response of S- and R-green foxtail to increasing dosages of ethalfluralin, applied PPI in rapeseed, was investigated in a field experiment in 1989 and 1990. The R-biotype was 7 times more resistant to ethalfluralin than the S-biotype based on density determinations 4 wk after emergence. Seven times higher dosage was required to reduce R-seed production by 50% than to reduce S-seed production by the same amount. The initial reductions in density of R- and S-plants at the recommended dosage of ethalfluralin in rapeseed (1.4 kg ha−1) was 35% and 95%, respectively. The effective kill (seed yield reduction) of R- and S-biotypes was 55% and 99%, respectively. The results indicate that ethalfluralin will not effectively control R-green foxtail. However, several other herbicides with different mechanisms of action can be used to effectively control R-foxtail, thereby reducing any adverse effects of their interference on crop production.
Surveys were conducted across the northern Great Plains of Canada in 1996 and 1997 to determine the nature and occurrence of herbicide-resistant (HR) biotypes of wild oat (Avena fatua). The surveys indicated that resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors (Group 1) occurred most frequently relative to other herbicide groups. Group 1-HR wild oat occurred in over one-half of fields surveyed in each of the three prairie provinces. Of particular concern was the relatively high incidence of multiple-group resistance in wild oat in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In Saskatchewan, 18% of Group 1-HR populations were also resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibitors (imidazolinones), even though these herbicides were not frequently used. In Manitoba, 27% of fields surveyed had wild oat resistant to herbicides from more than one group. Four populations were resistant to all herbicides registered for use in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Depending on the nature of resistance in wild oat, alternative herbicides available for their control may substantially increase costs to the grower. The cost to growers of managing HR wild oat in Saskatchewan and Manitoba using alternative herbicides is estimated at over $4 million annually. For some HR biotypes, alternative herbicides either are not available or all have the same site of action, which restricts crop or herbicide rotation options and threatens the future sustainability of small-grain annual cropping systems where these infestations occur.
Growth chamber studies were conducted to examine the soil residual properties of DPX-A7881, a new sulfonylurea herbicide. The phytotoxic residue levels in the soil were determined by a lentil radicle bioassay. The duration of activity was prolonged in soil adjusted to pH 7.6 and 8.1 relative to more acidic levels. The rate of breakdown in the soil was enhanced with increased temperature and soil moisture content; a significant temperature by moisture interaction was noted over the duration of the incubation period. The dissipation of DPX-A7881 in soil obeyed first-order kinetics in both studies. An accelerated rate of breakdown in unsterilized versus sterilized soil (pH 7.6) indicated that microbial degradation was an important factor affecting the persistence in alkaline soils. Herbicide residues in the soil caused a reduction in taproot length and number of primary lateral roots of canola seedlings 15 days after planting but there were no other morphological effects observed on the root. The secondary laterals, however, had generally recovered by this time.
Industry, public-sector researchers and extension agents, and growers were surveyed in 1998 to determine their perspectives on how labeling herbicides with their site of action (group number) would affect the herbicide use practices of growers. The crop protection industry in Canada represented by the Crop Protection Institute (CPI) generally supports herbicide resistance labeling but has some concerns regarding the wording of the labels, including the identification symbol. Most researchers and extension agents believe that labeling herbicides with their site of action will facilitate herbicide group rotation by growers who frequently use herbicides from the same group. Of the two-thirds of the 126 surveyed growers who were familiar with herbicide groupings, 58% practiced herbicide group rotation. Those who did not tended to lack understanding of the basis and purpose of herbicide classification. Grower responses were similar to those from the research and extension community, although only 29% of the growers who currently do not rotate herbicides from different groups believed that resistance management labeling would influence them.