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A stalagmite was collected in northern Hungary from the Vacska Cave, where monitoring and ventilation-based site selection had been conducted. The stalagmite covers the 10–8 ka (relative to AD 1950) period, including the so-called 8.2 ka event, and showed preceding signs of climate change that were evaluated by petrographic observations, 14C activities, Sr concentrations, and stable isotope compositions of calcite and inclusion-hosted water. Comparisons of speleothem records show that isotope peaks at ca. 8.5 ka are related to a regional climate anomaly, rather than to a continental-scale event. In accordance with regional proxy records, the 8.2 ka event was associated with a series of temperature and precipitation amount changes, starting with cooling and a reduction in the winter-to-summer precipitation ratio, and then becoming a humid and warm phase at 8.15 ka. X-ray diffraction-based crystallinity parameter (FWHM) values provided evidence for diagenetic alteration of the stable oxygen isotope compositions of inclusion waters. Nevertheless, the stable hydrogen isotope compositions of inclusion waters and the oxygen isotope values of the host calcite revealed elevated d-excess values, and therefore increased Mediterranean moisture contribution during the 8.2 ka event, which indirectly indicate the southward displacement of moisture transport from the Atlantic Ocean.
A multidecadal-resolved stalagmite δ18O record from two nearby caves, Lianhua and Dragon, in Shanxi Province, northern China, characterizes the detailed East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity changes at 114.6–108.3 ka during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5d. Our record shows an intensification of the EASM at 114.6–109.5 ka, followed by a rapid weakening at 109.5–108.4 ka. The millennial-scale strong monsoonal event appears to be correlated with the warm Greenland interstadial 25 (GI 25), whereas the weak monsoonal event is related to the cold Greenland stadial 25 within dating errors. The GI 25 monsoonal event registered in our record is also documented in various published time series from different regions of China. The lines of evidence indicate that this event occurred over the entirety of monsoonal China and was also broadly antiphase, similar to the corresponding event on a millennial time scale in the South American monsoon territory. In our record, one 700 yr weak monsoon event at 110.7+0.6−0.5 to 110.0+0.8−0.4 ka divides the GI 25 into three substages. These multicentennial to millennial–scale monsoon events correspond to two warm periods and an intervening cold interval for the intra-interstadial climate oscillations within GI 25, thus supporting a persistent coupling of the high- and low-latitude climate systems over the last glacial period.
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