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The concurrent incidence of autoimmune comorbidities in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is known. However, the association between OCD and related autoimmune skin diseases (ASDs) has not been well studied.
This study aimed to investigate the association between OCD and the risk of ASDs.
To assess the risk of developing ASDs, we recruited 44 324 patients with OCD and 177 296 matched controls from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A Cox regression model was used for the analyses.
After adjusting for confounders, an increased risk of ASDs among the patients with OCD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 6.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.43-7.45) was found when compared to the controls. Statistically significant associations were found between OCD and seven individual ASDs, including psoriasis (aHR: 12.52; 95% CI: 8.78-17.85), lichen planus (aHR: 27.22; 95% CI: 13.09-56.60), alopecia areata (aHR: 13.69; 95% CI: 9.38-19.98), autoimmune bullous diseases (aHR: 4.30; 95% CI: 2.03-9.11), hidradenitis suppurativa (aHR: 29.95; 95% CI: 3.35-267.62), vitiligo (aHR: 9.35; 95% CI: 5.35-16.32), and lupus erythematosus (aHR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.52-2.91).
Patients with OCD had an increased risk of developing ASDs compared to matched controls. Further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
Cognitive impairment is common in late-life depression, which may increase Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether late-life major depressive disorder (MDD) has worse cognition and increases the characteristic AD neuropathology. Furthermore, we carried out a comparison between treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and non-TRD. We hypothesized that patients with late-life depression and TRD may have increased β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in brain regions responsible for global cognition.
We recruited 81 subjects, including 54 MDD patients (27 TRD and 27 non-TRD) and 27 matched healthy controls (HCs). Neurocognitive tasks were examined, including Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment to detect global cognitive functions. PET with Pittsburgh compound-B and fluorodeoxyglucose were used to capture brain Aβ pathology and glucose use, respectively, in some patients.
MDD patients performed worse in Montreal Cognitive Assessment (p = 0.003) and had more Aβ deposits than HCs across the brain (family-wise error-corrected p < 0.001), with the most significant finding in the left middle frontal gyrus. Significant negative correlations between global cognition and prefrontal Aβ deposits existed in MDD patients, whereas positive correlations were noted in HCs. TRD patients had significantly more deposits in the left-sided brain regions (corrected p < 0.001). The findings were not explained by APOE genotypes. No between-group fluorodeoxyglucose difference was detected.
Late-life depression, particularly TRD, had increased brain Aβ deposits and showed vulnerability to Aβ deposits. A detrimental role of Aβ deposits in global cognition in patients with late-onset or non-late-onset MDD supported the theory that late-life MDD could be a risk factor for AD.
To investigate potential risk factors for mild behavioral impairment (MBI) among non-demented geriatrics.
Population-based, cross-sectional survey.
Taiwan Alzheimer Disease Association (TADA) Database.
Participants were selected by multistage random sampling of all Taiwan counties. They received in-person interviews between December 2011 and March 2013.
Demographic data, lifestyle and habits, medical comorbidities, cognitive status measured by the Taiwanese Mini-Mental Status Examination (TMSE) and presence of MCI of the participants were collected. Subjects were distributed to the MBI and non-MBI groups. These factors had been evaluated for their effects on MBI in the univariate and multivariable logistic regression models.
In total, 6,196 non-demented participants aged 65 years or older, including 409 MBI and 5,787 non-MBI participants, were recruited. After adjustment for age, sex, education, body mass index, lifestyle and habits, medical comorbidities, and MCI, good sleep was associated with lower risk of MBI (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.07 – 0.12). Low body weight (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.21–3.33), low-to-medium education (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.06–1.85; OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.67–3.21), medical comorbidities of hypertension (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25–1.95), hyperlipidemia (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.00–1.67), cancer (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.37–3.06) were significantly associated with increased MBI risk. MCI neither increased nor decreased risk of MBI (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.76–1.32).
Good sleep was associated with lower MBI risk. Underweight, lower education, medical comorbidities of cancer, hypertension, hyperlipidemia were predictive of MBI.
Population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs that use a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are often faced with a noncompliance issue and its subsequent waiting time (WT) for those FIT positives complying with confirmatory diagnosis. We aimed to identify factors associated with both of the correlated problems in the same model.
A total of 294,469 subjects, either with positive FIT test results or having a family history, collected from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled for analysis. We applied a hurdle Poisson regression model to accommodate the hurdle of compliance and also its related WT for undergoing colonoscopy while assessing factors responsible for the mixture of the two outcomes.
The effect on compliance and WT varied with contextual factors, such as geographic areas, type of screening units, and level of urbanization. The hurdle score, representing the risk score in association with noncompliance, and the WT score, reflecting the rate of taking colonoscopy, were used to classify subjects into each of three groups representing the degree of compliance and the level of health awareness.
Our model was not only successfully applied to evaluating factors associated with the compliance and the WT distribution, but also developed into a useful assessment model for stratifying the risk and predicting whether and when screenees comply with the procedure of receiving confirmatory diagnosis given contextual factors and individual characteristics.
Genetic variants and medication adherence have been identified to be the main factors contributing to lithium treatment response in bipolar disorders.
To simultaneously examine effects of variant glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) and medication adherence on response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese patients with bipolar I (BPI) disorder.
Frequencies of manic and depressive episodes between carriers and non-carriers of the effective GADL1 rs17026688 T allele during the cumulative periods of off-lithium, poor adherence to lithium treatment and good adherence to lithium treatment were compared in Han Chinese patients with BPI disorder (n = 215).
GADL1 rs17026688 T carriers had significantly lower frequencies of recurrent affective episodes than non-T carriers during the cumulative period of good adherence, but not during those of poor adherence.
GADL1 rs17026688 and medication adherence jointly predict response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese BPI patients.
Previous studies have identified numerous factors that affect incident-reporting behavior. However, few studies have applied an individual psychology perspective to identify and examine the factors affecting the intention of nursing staff to report incidents. We integrate the theory of planned behavior, organizational behavior, psychological behavior, and social exchange theory to identify which factors affect the intentions of nursing staff to report incidents. Samples were collected from nursing staff at 40 regional or larger hospitals for model verification. The results of this study show that psychological safety, attitude toward reporting incidents, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control correlate positively with the intention to report incidents. The perceived cost and perceived benefit of incident reporting directly affects the attitude toward incident-reporting behavior, and self-efficacy influences perceived behavioral control. Furthermore, subjective norms and the perceived benefits of incident reporting mediate the effect of psychological safety on attitude toward incident-reporting behavior.
Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum azole exhibiting strong anti-Aspergillus activity and good long-term tolerance. However, the evidence for voriconazole efficacy against refractory Aspergillus otomycosis is weak.
We reviewed the medical records of patients with Aspergillus otomycosis treated with voriconazole from January 2008 to June 2012 in a Taiwanese regional hospital. Demographic data and information regarding underlying diseases, clinical features, treatment and outcome were assessed.
In total, 14 cases of Aspergillus otomycosis were treated with voriconazole, including 5 patients with Aspergillus invasive otitis externa. All patients had failed to respond to local treatment, antibiotics or topical agents. One case was lost to follow up. The symptoms of two patients recurred after voriconazole treatment: one patient received a second 12-week course of voriconazole and was cured; and symptoms of the other patient recurred after a second 12-week course of voriconazole, leading to surgical debridement. The remaining 11 patients were cured by voriconazole treatment without extensive surgical debridement.
This study demonstrates that voriconazole can be a very effective and convenient therapeutic option for the management of refractory Aspergillus otomycosis.
We were amused by the Cross Track Distance at Mid-Longitude problem posed by Paul Hickley in The Journal of Navigation 57, 320. Two professors, John Ponsonby and Peter Hoare, replied to the invitations immediately. Both their solutions to the original article give superb accuracy. The two solutions are certainly ingenious and creative and encouraged us to develop new formula for building the Mid-Longitude Equation on great circle. Regrettably, the original author doesn’t think that the two were the solution that ATPL examiners were looking for. I also think that the two solutions would be beyond the capacity of the average undergraduate. Our method gives a good understanding logically and easily to be mnemonic, and the derivation process is found without any need to appeal to any formula of spherical trigonometry.
Traditionally, on a great circle, the latitude or longitude of a waypoint is found by inspection. In this paper, using an elementary knowledge of vector algebra including linear combination of vectors and vector basis, we provide an easy method for finding the equation of a great circle path as a parameterized curve. By use of this vector function of distance travelled, the latitude and longitude of waypoints can be found based on the distance from departure point along a great circle. The approach is intended to appeal to the navigator who is interested in the mathematics of navigation and who, nowadays, solves his navigation problems with a personal computer.
In this paper, we measured and analyzed the operation lifetime of a high efficiency blue OLED which consists of N,N' –Vdiphenyl -N,N'-bis(1-napthyl) -1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'- diamine (NPB) as the hole-transport layer (HTL), 4,4'-bis[2-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl)vinyl]biphenyl (DPAVBi) doped in 9,10-bis(2';-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emitting layer (EML), and bis(10-hydroxyben-zo[h]quinolinato)beryllium (Bebq2) as the electron-transport layer (ETL). Due to the high electron mobility of the ETL (one order of magnitude higher than Alq3), the carrier balance is achieved and a blue OLED with a high external quantum efficiency of 8.32% is obtained. The device structure of our blue OLED device is ITO /HTL (40nm)/EML (45nm, 4% dopant)/ETL (15nm)/ LiF(1.2nm)/Al (100nm). In our operation lifetime measurement, we fixed the initial luminescence of the blue OLEDs at 12500, 10000, 7000, 5000 cd/m2 with a constant current driving. The resulting half-lifetime are 5.58, 16.56, 27, 109.819 hours, respectively. To estimate the half-lifetime of this device, we use a well-known relation in our fitting: L*t1/2n= constant where n is the acceleration coefficient, and t1/2 is the half-lifetime. In our blue OLED, the n value is 3.088. By using the equation, we can calculate that the estimated half lifetime at an initial luminance of 1000 cd/m2 achieves 15611 hours in our device. For further investigating the lifetime mechanism in our blue OLED, we fit all the luminance versus time curves obtained under different driving condition. We found that luminance is inversely proportional to the square of the time, rather than a typically stretched exponential decay which means the luminance decay is a second-order reaction in our blue OLED.
In this paper, we use a perylene diimide derivative serving as a destructive and an absorption layer of the “black cathode” of an organic light-emitting device (OLED). A thin and semitransparent metal between the electron transport layer and the perylene diimide is used for better electron injection and also serves as the destructive interference. The thickness of such layer is critical since thinner metal results in lower reflectance, but higher diving voltage due to worse electron injection. To enhance the electron injection capability, the thickness of the thin metal increases which in turns to increase the reflectance. Here, we used a double-metal configuration to decrease the reflectance and maintain the electron injection capability at the same time.
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