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This study aims to identify factors associated with divorce following breast cancer diagnosis and measures the impact of divorce on the quality of life (QoL) of patients.
We used cross-sectional survey data collected at breast cancer outpatient clinics in South Korea from November 2018 to April 2019. Adult breast cancer survivors who completed active treatment without any cancer recurrence at the time of the survey (N = 4,366) were included. The participants were classified into two groups: “maintaining marriage” and “being divorced,” between at the survey and at the cancer diagnosis. We performed logistic regression and linear regression to identify the factors associated with divorce after cancer diagnosis and to compare the QoL of divorced and nondivorced survivors.
Approximately 11.1/1,000 of married breast cancer survivors experienced divorce after cancer diagnosis. Younger age, lower education, and being employed at diagnosis were associated with divorce. Being divorced survivors had significantly lower QoL (Coefficient [Coef] = −7.50; 95% CI = −13.63, −1.36), social functioning (Coef = −9.47; 95% CI = −16.36, −2.57), and body image (Coef = −8.34; 95% CI = −6.29, −0.39) than survivors who remained married. They also experienced more symptoms including pain, insomnia, financial difficulties, and distress due to hair loss.
Identifying risk factors of divorce will ultimately help ascertain the resources necessary for early intervention.
Some researchers have suggested that young children choose to say mainly words containing sounds they can produce and avoid words with sounds they find difficult to produce. This proposed pattern of ‘selection’ supports a hypothesis of dominance of phonological factors in words children choose to say. Based on longitudinal spontaneous data samples during their first 50 word period, word-based tokens produced by two English and two French monolingual children were analyzed. Token frequencies in spontaneously produced word targets (SW-T) were compared to children's actual productions (SW-A) of those target words to understand relationships between targets children choose to say and their patterns in actual productions, (i.e., to evaluate the presence of ‘selection’). Place of articulation (i.e., labial, coronal and dorsal) in initial word position within CV, CVC, and CVCV word forms was compared. Analysis of spontaneous output in daily interactions in children learning two languages with differing phonological systems enables a more general evaluation of issues related to the interface of phonological and lexical aspects during the earliest period of language acquisition.
The 1980s witnessed a sudden rise of writing and thinking about architectural drawings and their conventions. At about the same time, there also emerged a trend of a new type of presentational drawing in architecture, in which drawings were very complex to the point of undecipherability, graphically sophisticated, and sometimes seemingly created for their own sake rather than to represent a particular architectural project. Upon reviewing the texts on drawings from this period, two important insights are made about the use of presentational drawings in architectural practice and their relation to theory. First, that making of architectural drawings can constitute practice in its own right and such practice, if developed experimentally, leads theory, rather than lagging it and serving to validate it. Second, architectural drawings, over and above communicating information about their subject matter, can also function as a means to create social networks of discursive practice. These insights lead to an unexpected question concerning the distinctiveness of architectural practice itself.
This study investigates whether the earliest words children choose to say are mainly words containing sounds they can produce (cf. ‘phonological dominance’ hypotheses), or whether children choose words without regard to their phonological characteristics (cf. ‘lexical dominance’ hypotheses). Phonological properties of words in spontaneous speech from six children age 0;8 to 2;11 were analyzed by comparing sound distributions of consonant place and manner. Word-initial and word-final consonant patterns in children's Word Targets versus Actual Word Forms were analyzed as a function of vocabulary size. Word-initial results showed more overall evidence for phonological dominance. In word-final position, at lower vocabulary sizes, results showed several differences between Word Targets and Actual Word Forms, consistent with lexical dominance. These findings challenge an ‘either–or’ phonological versus lexical dominance approach, and support consideration of a multifactorial set of influences, including different phonological dimensions and word positions, on the words that young children choose to say.
It is unclear how brain reserve interacts with gender and apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype, and how this influences the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The association between intracranial volume (ICV) and progression to AD in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and differences according to gender and APOE4 genotype, was investigated.
Data from subjects initially diagnosed with MCI and at least two visits were downloaded from the ADNI database. Those who progressed to AD were defined as converters. The longitudinal influence of ICV was determined by survival analysis. The time of conversion from MCI to AD was set as a fiducial point, as all converters would be at a similar disease stage then, and longitudinal trajectories of brain atrophy and cognitive decline around that point were compared using linear mixed models.
Large ICV increased the risk of conversion to AD in males (HR: 4.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–15.40) and APOE4 non-carriers (HR: 10.00, 95% CI: 1.34–74.53), but not in females or APOE4 carriers. Cognitive decline and brain atrophy progressed at a faster rate in males with large ICV than in those with small ICV during the two years before and after the time of conversion.
Large ICV increased the risk of conversion to AD in males and APOE4 non-carriers with MCI. This may be due to its influence on disease trajectory, which shortens the duration of the MCI stage. A longitudinal model of progression trajectory is proposed.
The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) has been recognized as an effective tool for dementia detection. This study investigated the clock drawing performance of 240 non-demented elderly Korean people with a wide-range of educational levels and 28 patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (DAT). We examined the effects of demographic factors, including education, and established norms for the elderly population. We found that the educational attainment and literacy status of older people influenced performance on the CDT significantly (p < .001). Furthermore, qualitative error analysis revealed that normal participants with low educational background committed errors similar to errors of the DAT patients. The DAT patients performed significantly worse than the non-demented participants in the CDT Total score (p < .001). However, the CDT has better criterion validity in participants with more than 6 years of education. In conclusion, the CDT performance in older people who are either illiterate or with 6 or less years of education should be interpreted with caution. Conceptual errors in the CDT can be the result of not only dementia but also lack of education. (JINS, 2010, 16, 1138–1146.)
This study presents the effect of pad properties, such as elastic modulus and surface roughness, on planarity in a CMP process. A systematic method to measure planarization length, which represents the die-scale planarity in a quantitative manner, has been proposed. It has been shown that the planarization length is highly dependent on the bulk modulus of the pad. The effect of elastic modulus and roughness of the pad on dishing amount, which represents the feature-scale planarity, has been shown. Dishing amount is determined by the elastic modulus of the superficial layer of the pad, which is typically tens of microns thick, rather than by the bulk elastic modulus of the pad. A double layer pad model has been proposed based on the observed results, which can explain that the dishing amount is reduced by increasing elastic modulus of the pad superficial layer, or by decreasing the surface roughness of the pad.
Silicon nitride thin films were deposited on single crystalline silicon substrates at room temperature by ECR PECVD with SiH4 and N2 as source gases and the electrical properties were analyzed. The dominant conduction mechanism in a high field was Poole-Frenkel emission. A ledge in I-V curve was observed in the first voltage ramp and it was found to originate from the field reduction at the injecting electrode due to the charge trapped in deep traps in the film. It also turned out that the ledge is a characteristic of monopolar conduction. A new interpretation of the current at low field — tunneling into trap states — was proposed and the current variations according to the field and temperature could be well explained.
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