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From 2013 to 2015, China gradually established nationwide air quality monitoring stations and began to release real-time air pollution information to the public. We exploit step-by-step environmental regulations across cities to identify the effects of information disclosure on air pollution. We find that information disclosure significantly decreases the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10. Through mechanism analysis, we find that information disclosure raises the level of government awareness, increases the amount of investments in air pollution prevention and control, stimulates green innovation, and forces heavily polluting enterprises to shut down. Additionally, we find evidence that the effectiveness of information disclosure varies across cities.
The dynamics of entry and exit are examined across different categories of farms depending on the timing of entry and/or exit through a detailed panel data set on Canadian agriculture. The decomposition highlights the differences in the groups of farms and provides information affecting entry and exit beyond what can be inferred from net exit numbers. While aggregate values show a gradual fall in farm numbers over time and suggest a sector in decline, the decomposition reveals that approximately one-third of farms in each census are new entrants but only half of these will be in operation by the time of the next census. The results of the analysis suggest that many of the factors that increase the probability of entry also increase the probability of exit; smaller operations, producing vegetable/horticulture goods, located in more densely populated regions, are more likely to enter the sector but also to leave farming. Multigeneration involvement and a possible succession plan also contribute to the longevity of the farm operation after it has been launched. The results also highlight the decline of the mid-size operations and the growing importance of large farms in the overall share of production.
To overcome the steric effect of norbornene (NB), first-generation Grubbs’ catalyst (GC1) was used as the catalyst to graft NB onto the polypropylene (PP) chain by reactive extrusion. Instead of harsh reaction conditions, such as anhydrous, which was the general method to synthesize NB polymers, this convenient method would be easier to industrialize. The mechanism of grafting was studied by using Fourier Transform InfraRed spectra and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that GC1 could initiate the ring-opening metathesis polymerization of NB to obtain short NB chain-grafted PP-g-NB. The rheological behavior showed that the grafted NB short chains on PP-g-NB increase the shear thinning of the polymers and decrease the system viscosity.
By using microemulsion-mediated solvothermal method in the presence of camphorsulfonic acid as a dopant, self-aggregated polyaniline (PANI) nanowires were synthesized and further organized into three-dimensional cluster-connected networks. So-formed PANI exhibited a hierarchically porous structure, which was significantly different from those obtained by conventional chemical oxidation method, hydrothermal method, and other reported methods. Compared with nanofibers presented in this study, the nanowires in the clusters had a great decrease in diameter from ∼60 to ∼15 nm due to the space-confined polymerization. In addition, the size of the clusters could be easily adjusted by altering the dopant/monomer molar ratio. A probable assembly mechanism for such an interesting morphology was proposed. Used as an electrode material, PANI clusters showed high specific capacitances (510 and 368 F g−1 at 0.5 and 2 A g−1, respectively) and improved cycling stability (66% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles) as compared to PANI fibers and particles obtained by other methods, which may be related to its unique morphology and high doping level.
Background: Although accumulating research demonstrates the association between attentional bias and social anxiety, the bias for positive stimuli has so far not been adequately studied. Aims: The aim is to investigate the time-course of attentional bias for positive social words in participants with high and low social anxiety. Method: In a modified dot-probe task, word-pairs of neutral and positive social words were randomly presented for 100, 500, and 1250 milliseconds in a nonclinical sample of students to test their attentional bias. Results: Non-significant interaction of Group × Exposure Duration was found. However, there was a significant main effect of group, with significantly different response latencies between the high social anxiety (HSA) and low social anxiety (LSA) groups in the 100 ms condition, without for 500 or 1250 ms. With respect to attentional bias, the LSA group showed enhanced preferential attention for positive social words to which the HSA group showed avoidance in the 100 ms condition. In the 500 ms condition, preferential attention to positive social words was at trend in the LSA group, relative to the HSA group. Neither group showed attentional bias in the 1250 ms condition. Conclusions: These findings extend recent research about the attention training program and add to the empirical literature suggesting that the initial avoidance of positive stimuli may contribute to maintaining social anxiety.
The electrical and material characterization of Ti(C)N deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, as metal gate electrode for advanced CMOS technology is investigated. The effects of the plasma treatment, post anneal treatment and the thickness variation of the Ti(C)N film on the flat band voltage (VFB) and effective work function (WF) of the Poly-Si/Ti(C)N/SiO2 Poly-Si/Ti(C)N/SiO2 gate stack s are reported. We found that both the in-situ plasma treatment and post anneal treatment help in reducing the carbon content (organic) in the film making it more metallic compared to the as-deposited films. However, the post anneal treatment was found to be a better option for getting rid of hydrocarbons as compared to plasma treatment from the gate dielectric integrity point of view. The thickness variation of post annealed Ti(C)N film ranged from 2.5 nm to 10 nm lead to WF shift of upto ~350 mV for both Poly-Si/Ti(C)N/SiO2 and Poly-Si/Ti(C)N/HfO2 gate stacks.
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