To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Accurate prognostication is important for patients and their families to prepare for the end of life. Objective Prognostic Score (OPS) is an easy-to-use tool that does not require the clinicians’ prediction of survival (CPS), whereas Palliative Prognostic Score (PaP) needs CPS. Thus, inexperienced clinicians may hesitate to use PaP. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of OPS compared with PaP in inpatients in palliative care units (PCUs) in three East Asian countries.
This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-cultural, multicenter cohort study. We enrolled inpatients with far-advanced cancer in PCUs in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan from 2017 to 2018. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve to compare the accuracy of OPS and PaP.
A total of 1,628 inpatients in 33 PCUs in Japan and Korea were analyzed. OPS and PaP were calculated in 71.7% of the Japanese patients and 80.0% of the Korean patients. In Taiwan, PaP was calculated for 81.6% of the patients. The AUROC for 3-week survival was 0.74 for OPS in Japan, 0.68 for OPS in Korea, 0.80 for PaP in Japan, and 0.73 for PaP in Korea. The AUROC for 30-day survival was 0.70 for OPS in Japan, 0.71 for OPS in Korea, 0.79 for PaP in Japan, and 0.74 for PaP in Korea.
Significance of results
Both OPS and PaP showed good performance in Japan and Korea. Compared with PaP, OPS could be more useful for inexperienced physicians who hesitate to estimate CPS.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
Decreased hemoglobin levels increase the risk of developing dementia among the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms that link decreased hemoglobin levels to incident dementia still remain unclear, possibly due to the fact that few studies have reported on the relationship between low hemoglobin levels and neuroimaging markers. We, therefore, investigated the relationships between decreased hemoglobin levels, cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD), and cortical atrophy in cognitively healthy women and men.
Cognitively normal women (n = 1,022) and men (n = 1,018) who underwent medical check-ups and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled at a health promotion center. We measured hemoglobin levels, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) scales, lacunes, and microbleeds. Cortical thickness was automatically measured using surface based methods. Multivariate regression analyses were performed after controlling for possible confounders.
Decreased hemoglobin levels were not associated with the presence of WMH, lacunes, or microbleeds in women and men. Among women, decreased hemoglobin levels were associated with decreased cortical thickness in the frontal (Estimates, 95% confidence interval, −0.007, (−0.013, −0.001)), temporal (−0.010, (−0.018, −0.002)), parietal (−0.009, (−0.015, −0.003)), and occipital regions (−0.011, (−0.019, −0.003)). Among men, however, no associations were observed between hemoglobin levels and cortical thickness.
Our findings suggested that decreased hemoglobin levels affected cortical atrophy, but not increased CSVD, among women, although the association is modest. Given the paucity of modifiable risk factors for age-related cognitive decline, our results have important public health implications.
Free fatty acids (FFAs), an important energy substrate, have an association with cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial dysfunction and abnormal cardiac rhythm. However, limited reports are available on the association between FFAs and ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that plasma FFA concentration could be associated with an ischemic stroke, emphasizing the relationship between FFA and subtypes of ischemic stroke.
A cross-sectional study examined the association between FFA concentration and subtypes of stroke and cerebral atherosclerosis from a hospital-based acute stroke registry.
Data of 715 stroke patients were analyzed. The concentration of FFA was highest in the cardioembolic stroke subtype compared with the other stroke subtypes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase in FFA concentration was significantly associated with the cardioembolic subtype after the adjustment of covariates. FFA concentration was also higher in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) than those without AF. According to the presence of atherosclerotic stenosis, no significantly difference of FFA concentration was found for intracranial and extracranial cerebral arterial atherosclerosis.
Here we report a significant association between fasting FFA concentration and the cardioembolic stroke subtype. AF is suggested as the mediating factor between FFA and the cardioembolic stroke subtype.
Background: Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education.
Methods: A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (−1.5 to −1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below −1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated.
Results: Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.
ZnS:Cu,Cl,Mn,Te, which shows red AC powder electroluminescence (ACPEL) emission, was synthesized using a conventional wet synthesis and a sealed vessel method. The photoluminescence (PL) and ACPEL were characterized. After the second firing, 0.5 wt% tellurium (Te)-doped ZnS:Cu,Cl,Mn,Te phosphor shows almost red PL emission from the 4T1–6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions, which are affected by the Te. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis on the Mn K edge proved that the substitution of sulfur (S) with Te changes the local crystal field of the Mn2+ ions and shifts an orange emission (∼588 nm) to a red emission (∼650 nm). A red ACPEL emission is first shown in 0.5 wt%Te-doped ZnS:Cu,Cl,Mn,Te after the third firing phosphor even though its luminance is not very high. The origin of the ACPEL emission is assumed to be not a CuxS–ZnS p–n junction but a CuxTe–ZnS p–n junction. Raman spectra were characterized to support that the red ACPEL emission is probably attributed to a CuxTe–ZnS p–n junction.
Conventional Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) was modified by adding up a small amount of SiOx, using co-sputtering technique from multiple targets. The SiOx content was gradually increased by increasing the power applied to SiOx target, up to 8 volume percent. The sheet resistance of SiOx-containing GST exponentially increased, when the room-temperature-deposited samples were annealed at 300 °C. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that no SiOx particulates were formed, which was confirmed by Gattan image filtering. It was indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns that the grain size of SiOx-containing GST is smaller than normal GST with lattice locally distorted at its crystalline state, suggesting that molecular SiOx is homogeneously distributed throughout the GST matrix. We observed that the crystallization temperature of SiOx-containing GST is gradually elevated by increasing the SiOx content, while the melting point decreased. These observations led to the reset current reduction, which is a critical requirement for the high density PRAM.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.