To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Little is known about the early history of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), including the timing and circumstances of its introduction into new cultural environments. To evaluate its spatio-temporal spread across Eurasia and north-west Africa, the authors radiocarbon dated 23 chicken bones from presumed early contexts. Three-quarters returned dates later than those suggested by stratigraphy, indicating the importance of direct dating. The results indicate that chickens did not arrive in Europe until the first millennium BC. Moreover, a consistent time-lag between the introduction of chickens and their consumption by humans suggests that these animals were initially regarded as exotica and only several centuries later recognised as a source of ‘food’.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The primary goals of this study are 1) expand our understanding of the neural circuitry influenced by the neuropeptide Neuromedin U (NMU) via its receptor Neuromedin U Receptor 2 (NMUR2), and 2) provide alternative top-down mechanisms for how NMU regulates high fat food intake and cocaine taking. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for NMUR2 and cell markers was performed on rat brain tissue containing the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To identify the source of the presynaptic NMUR2, anterograde tracing from the paraventricular nucleus or dorsal raphe nucleus to the mPFC utilizing an AAV2- dsRed-synaptobrevin fusion protein were performed (n=3) and will be followed by IHC. Using in vivo calcium imaging technology (InScopix nVista), neuronal activity (calcium transients) was recorded from the mPFC of two awake, freely behaving rats. Each animal underwent a single session of 30 minutes baseline activity, intraperitoneal NMU administration, and 30 minutes of post-treatment activity. Activity was then processed and recorded as distinct events using the InScopix data acquisition software. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Medial prefrontal cortex staining for NMUR2 revealed a characteristic “beads on a string” motif, consistent with presynaptic receptor expression. Furthermore, we expect the anterograde tracing experiment will show colocalization of the dsRed-synaptobrevin fusion protein with NMUR2 on synaptic inputs into the medial prefrontal cortex. Following quantification of pre- and post- treatment events using the InScopix data acquisition software, total events during the pre- and post-treatment time periods were calculated. In these studies, both animals demonstrated a clear increase in calcium transient activity between pre- and post- treatment evaluations, suggesting that NMU administration increases the neuronal activity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This research provides a new site of action for the known therapeutic effects of NMU. We demonstrate the presence of presynaptic NMUR2 in the mPFC and show that systemic administration of NMU increases mPFC neuronal activity. This illustrates NMU may act as a top-down mediator for substance use disorders and binge eating behaviors.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is commonly diagnosed during adolescence and is associated with psychological stress reactivity and heightened physiological arousal. No study, however, has systematically examined which aspects of autonomic nervous system function mediate likely links between stress sensitivity and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Here, we assessed 163 adolescents (90 females; 12.29 ± 1.39 years) with respect to life stress and social anxiety symptoms, and measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and skin conductance levels (SCL) during a psychosocial stress paradigm. We operationalized stress sensitivity as the residual variance in subjective stress severity after accounting for objective severity and changes in autonomic regulation using standardized change scores in RSA and SCL. In females only, stress sensitivity and social anxiety symptoms were significantly correlated with each other (p < .001) and with autonomic regulation during both reactivity and recovery (all ps < 0.04). Further, sympathetic nervous system dominance during recovery specifically mediated associations between stress sensitivity and social anxiety symptoms (B = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.02–2.64). In contrast, in males, stress sensitivity, autonomic regulation during reactivity or recovery, and social anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated (all ps > 0.1). We interpret these results in the context of psychobiological models of SAD and discuss implications for interventions targeting autonomic processes.
Academic Medical Centers strive to create multidisciplinary research teams to produce impactful science. However, few faculty researchers receive training in “team science,” a well-established concept in business research and practice. Responding to demand for assistance developing effective research teams, the Collaboration and Team Science Program of the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) at Wake Forest School of Medicine (WFSM) partnered with faculty from the Wake Forest University (WFU) School of Business with expertise in leadership, management, and team building. We initiated a needs assessment, including a written survey from a diverse set of 42 research scientists as well as semi-structured interviews with 8 researchers. In response to identified needs, we developed training sessions and consultations to teach teams to implement two tools known to enhance team dynamics: (1) Team charter, a document that defines the team’s purpose, goals, roles, and strategies; and (2) Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed (RACI) matrix, a table or spreadsheet that clarifies tasks and accountability. Since 2018, 10 teams and over 100 individuals have attended training sessions and 6 teams received personalized team consults. We describe these tools, present a formal analysis of quantitative results, and highlight the next steps being taken in response to these findings.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used for infection prevention in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), but evidence for this is lacking. We describe the prevalence of hypogammaglobulinemia in pediatric B-ALL, predictors of IVIG use and its efficacy for infection prevention. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We will conduct a retrospective review of children age 1-21 years with B-ALL treated at Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center from 2010 to 2017. The cohort was identified through the cancer registry. Demographics, disease factors, laboratory values, medications and infection outcomes were linked between the electronic medical record and an institutional database. Outcomes of interest include emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalization days, and episodes of infection. Descriptive statistics will be performed. Outcomes will be compared between IVIG recipients and non-recipients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models will assess predictors of IVIG administration. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 443 patients with B-ALL during the study period who met inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria included receipt of IVIG or hematopoietic stem cell transplant prior to diagnosis. The average age at diagnosis is 6.5 years (standard deviation 4.8 years); 52.6% are male; 61.6% are white; 61.0% are standard risk per National Cancer Institute criteria. Among eligible patients, 137 (31.1%) received IVIG. We hypothesize that IVIG initiation is associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and history of severe infection. We also anticipate that frequency of emergency department visits, hospitalization days, and episodes of infection will decrease after IVIG initiation. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The immunological profile of children with B-ALL and factors influencing their susceptibility to infection are still incompletely understood. The benefits of IVIG are unknown. This study will provide evidence for IVIG prophylaxis recommendations in pediatric leukemia patients.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: We aimed to develop an assay to measure new protein synthesis after Antisense Oligonucleotide treatment, which we hypothesized to be the earliest biochemical identification of RNA-targeting therapy efficacy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We treated 2 transgenic animal models expressing proteins implicated in neurodegenerative disease: human tau protein (hTau) and human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1), with ASO against these mRNA transcripts. Animals received isotope-labeled 13C6-Leucine via drinking water to label newly synthesized proteins. We assayed target protein synthesis and concentration after ASO treatment to determine the earliest identification of ASO target engagement. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: hTau ASO treatment in transgenic mice lowered hTau protein concentration 23 days post-treatment in cortex (95% CI: 0.05%–64.0% reduction). In the same tissue, we observed lowering of hTau protein synthesis as early as 13 days (95% CI: 29.4%–123%). In hSOD1 transgenic rats, we observed lowering of 13C6-leucine-labeled hSOD1 in the cerebrospinal fluid 30 days after ASO treatment compared with inactive ASO control (95% CI: 12.0%–48.4%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In progressive neurodegenerative diseases, it is crucial to develop measurements that identify treatment efficacy early to improve patient outcomes. These data support the use of stable isotope labeling of amino acids to measure new protein synthesis as an early pharmacodynamics measurement for therapies that target RNA and inhibit the translation of proteins.
This paper asks whether archaeologists might profitably re-engage with the pre-Enlightenment doctrines of elemental philosophy and humoral theory as paradigms more relevant for archaeological interpretation in certain contexts than much of current theoretical discourse. These ancient cosmologies are here reconceptualized to suggest ways in which archaeologists might provide fairer representations of past cultures, through the readoption of ideas that they understood rather than through the imposition of more recent and thus anachronistic frames of analytical reference. In four brief case studies, the paper seeks to show how the foregrounding of elemental and humoral theories might lead to new ways of thinking about the study and interpretation of the landscape, material culture, consumption and the senses. Through them, the paper looks to encourage reflection on whether elemental and humoral theories represent the intellectual paradigms that archaeologists have been striving to invent since the discipline's creation.
Threat analyses of the Boraginales were conducted and used to assess the effectiveness of Madagascar’s current and proposed protected area systems in conserving the threatened species of a group of plants widespread in Madagascar. Specimen locality data for 52 species of four families of Boraginales were analysed to provisionally assign species to IUCN Red List categories. Six species were excluded from these global analyses as they are non-native and introduced. IUCN’s criterion B, analysis of geographical range, was found to be the most reliable means of estimating threat, and predicted future decline was found to overestimate threat. Twenty-six of the 46 native species of Boraginales were found to be threatened. Sixty-five percent of these have portions of their ranges in the 2002 protected areas system. When the protected areas system was expanded in 2006 the percentage of species with some protected populations increased to 78%. More than 93% would be protected if a series of proposed priority areas for plant conservation were protected. The implications of these analyses for the conservation of plant species in Madagascar are discussed.
The evolutionary origin of the mammary gland has been difficult to establish because little knowledge can be gained on the origin of soft tissue organs from fossil evidence. One approach to resolve the origin of lactation has compared the anatomy of existing primitive mammals to skin glands, whilst another has examined the metabolic and molecular synergy between mammary gland development and the innate immune system. We have reviewed the physiology of lactation in five mammalian species with special reference to these theories. In all species, milk fulfils dual functions of providing protection and nutrition to the young and, furthermore, within species the quality and quantity of milk are highly conserved despite maternal malnutrition or illness. There are vast differences in birth weight, milk production, feeding frequency, macronutrient concentration, growth rate and length of lactation between rabbits, quokkas (Setonix brachyurus), pigs, cattle and humans. The components that protect the neonate against infection do so without causing inflammation. Many protective components are not unique to the mammary gland and are shared with the innate immune system. In contrast, many of the macronutrients in milk are unique to the mammary gland, have evolved from components of the innate immune system, and have either retained or developed multiple functions including the provision of nourishment and protection of the hatchling/neonate. Thus, there is a strong argument to suggest that the mammary gland evolved from the inflammatory response; however, the extensive protection that has developed in milk to actively avoid triggering inflammation seems to be a contradiction.
The effect of strain on the surface magnetism of the manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 has been studied as a function of temperature, using magnetic force microscopy. The non- uniform strain distribution in the film leads to a two-phase coexistence between ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic phases. This leads to a reduction of the surface curie temperature and the formation of ferromagnetic islands. Methods of controlling this behavior in order to fabricate arrays of magnetic nanodots are discussed.