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Multiwafer Planetary Reactor is a promising system for large-scale production of heterostructures for LED's based on III-group nitrides. Analysis of chemical processes occurring in the reactor allows one to get insight into specific mechanisms governing growth of nitride based heterostructures. In the present paper results of modeling analysis of MOVPE of InxGa1−xN layers in AIX-200 Reactor and AIX 2000 HT Planetary Reactor are reported. The model used for MOVPE process analysis accounts for gas flow, heat transfer, and multicomponent mass transport along with gas phase and surface chemical reactions. Results of the modeling analysis of In transport and incorporation into the solid phase are compared with experimental data. It is shown that the model predicts reasonably well the In incorporation during MOVPE of InGaN under In/(In+Ga) ratio in the gas phase less than 20%.
Using optimised growth processes for an AIX 2000 HT Planetary® Reactor a high material quality and high potential device yield are demonstrated. Doping levels for GaN single layers from 1·1020 cm−3 free electrons to semi-insulating to 1·1018 cm−3 free holes with state-of-the-art layer resistance uniformities especially for n-type layers are shown. Both AlGaN and GaInN with composition homogeneities of better than 1 nm photoluminescence peak-wavelength standard deviation are displayed. Finally, examination of optically pumped laser action in simple double-hetero structures is quoted to prove the quality of the material.
The current status of GaN crystal growth using the Sublimation Sandwich Technique is discussed in the paper. We use modeling to analyze gas dynamics in the reactor and the supply of the main gaseous species into the growth cell under growth conditions used in experiments. Important features of growth process — non-equilibrium cracking of ammonia, partial sticking of ammonia at the growing surface and kinetic limitation of GaN thermal decomposition — are taken into account in the model. Growth is carried out on sapphire and 6H-SiC substrates in ammonia atmosphere using a Ga/GaN mixture as the group-III element source. Single crystals of GaN of size 15×15 mm and up to 0.5 mm thick are normally grown with the optimized growth rates of 0.25-0.35 mm/h. The GaN crystals are characterized by photoluminescence, by the Color Cathodoluminescence Scanning Electron Microscopy technique, by differential double-crystal and triple-crystal X-ray diffractometry, and by electron paramagnetic resonance. Mechanisms of sublimation growth of GaN and physical limitations of the growth process are discussed.
We present results on the growth of Al-Ga-In-N films in multiwafer reactors with 7×2″ wafer capacity. The design of these reactors allows the combination of high efficiency (TMGa efficiency for GaN around 30%) and excellent uniformity. Results on the growth of all materials from the Al-Ga-In-Nitride family are presented in detail. GaN is grown with an excellent optical quality and very good thickness uniformity below 2% across 2″ wafers. The material quality is shown by electron mobility of more than 500 cm2/Vs at an intentional Si-doping of approximately 1×1017 cm−3. Controlled acceptor doping with Mg yields carrier concentrations between 5×1016 and 1018 cm−3. The layer thickness uniformity of the films are better than 2% over a 2″ wafer area. GaInN is grown with PL emission wavelengths in the visible blue region showing a uniformity better than 1.5 nm standard deviation. The film thickness uniformity represents the same figures as obtained for the binary. The compositional uniformity of AlGaN is in the sub 1% range corresponding to a wavelength variation below 1 nm.
The fabrication of heterostructures from these binary and ternary materials is described as well as results from the characterization of these structures. The results show that reliable and efficient production of Al-Ga-In-Nitride based optoelectronic devices can be performed in multiwafer reactors.
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