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Affective disturbances in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may represent a transdiagnostic etiological process as well as a target of intervention. Hypotheses on similarities and differences in various parameters of affective dynamics (intensity, successive/acute changes, variability, and reactivity to stress) between the two disorders were tested.
Experience sampling method was used to assess dynamics of positive and negative affect, 10 times a day over 6 consecutive days. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 46) and patients with bipolar disorder (n = 46) were compared against age-matched healthy controls (n = 46).
Compared to controls, the schizophrenia group had significantly more intense momentary negative affect, a lower likelihood of acute changes in positive affect, and reduced within-person variability of positive affect. The bipolar disorder group was not significantly different from either the schizophrenia group or the healthy control group on any affect indexes. Within the schizophrenia group, level of depression was associated with weaker reactivity to stress for negative affect. Within the bipolar disorder group, level of depression was associated with lower positive affect.
Patients with schizophrenia endured a more stable and negative affective state than healthy individuals, and were less likely to be uplifted in response to happenings in daily life. There is little evidence that these affective constructs characterize the psychopathology of bipolar disorder; such investigation may have been limited by the heterogeneity within group. Our findings supported the clinical importance of assessing multiple facets of affective dynamics beyond the mean levels of intensity.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health challenge negatively affecting victims’ health. Telomere length (TL), a marker for biological ageing, might be reflective of the mechanisms through which IPV leads to adverse health outcomes. The objective of the current study was to explore the association between IPV and leucocyte TL.
We conducted an analysis using a subset of the UK Biobank (N = 144 049). Physical, sexual and emotional IPV were reported by the participants. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. TL was assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We used multivariable linear regressions to test the associations between IPV and TL adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, education, as well as symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in a sensitivity analysis.
After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, any IPV was associated with 0.02-s.d. shorter TL (β = −0.02, 95% CI −0.04 to −0.01). Of the three types of IPV, physical violence had a marginally stronger association (β = −0.05, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.02) than the other two types. The associations of numbers of IPV and TL showed a dose–response pattern whereby those who experienced all three types of IPV types had the shortest TL (β = −0.07, 95% CI −0.12 to −0.03), followed by those who experienced two types (β = −0.04, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.01). Following additional adjustment for symptoms of depression and PTSD, the associations were slightly attenuated but the general trend by number of IPVs remained.
Victims of IPV, particularly those exposed to multiple types of IPVs, had shorter TL indicative of accelerated biological ageing. Given that all three types of IPV are linked to TL, clinical practitioners need to comprehensively identify all types of IPV and those who received multiple types. Further studies should explore the association of violence with changes in TL over time, as well as to which extent biological ageing is a mechanistic factor.
We obtained 24 air samples in 8 general wards temporarily converted into negative-pressure wards admitting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron variant BA.2.2 in Hong Kong. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 19 (79.2%) of 24 samples despite enhanced indoor air dilution. It is difficult to prevent airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals.
Contrasting the well-described effects of early intervention (EI) services for youth-onset psychosis, the potential benefits of the intervention for adult-onset psychosis are uncertain. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of EI on functioning and symptomatic improvement in adult-onset psychosis, and the optimal duration of the intervention.
360 psychosis patients aged 26–55 years were randomized to receive either standard care (SC, n = 120), or case management for two (2-year EI, n = 120) or 4 years (4-year EI, n = 120) in a 4-year rater-masked, parallel-group, superiority, randomized controlled trial of treatment effectiveness (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00919620). Primary (i.e. social and occupational functioning) and secondary outcomes (i.e. positive and negative symptoms, and quality of life) were assessed at baseline, 6-month, and yearly for 4 years.
Compared with SC, patients with 4-year EI had better Role Functioning Scale (RFS) immediate [interaction estimate = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001–0.014, p = 0.02] and extended social network (interaction estimate = 0.011, 95% CI = 0.004–0.018, p = 0.003) scores. Specifically, these improvements were observed in the first 2 years. Compared with the 2-year EI group, the 4-year EI group had better RFS total (p = 0.01), immediate (p = 0.01), and extended social network (p = 0.05) scores at the fourth year. Meanwhile, the 4-year (p = 0.02) and 2-year EI (p = 0.004) group had less severe symptoms than the SC group at the first year.
Specialized EI treatment for psychosis patients aged 26–55 should be provided for at least the initial 2 years of illness. Further treatment up to 4 years confers little benefits in this age range over the course of the study.
The role of severe respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–laden aerosols in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. Discordant findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples were noted in early reports.
Sampling of air close to 6 asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients with and without surgical masks was performed with sampling devices using sterile gelatin filters. Frequently touched environmental surfaces near 21 patients were swabbed before daily environmental disinfection. The correlation between the viral loads of patients’ clinical samples and environmental samples was analyzed.
All air samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the 6 patients singly isolated inside airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) with 12 air changes per hour. Of 377 environmental samples near 21 patients, 19 (5.0%) were positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with a median viral load of 9.2 × 102 copies/mL (range, 1.1 × 102 to 9.4 × 104 copies/mL). The contamination rate was highest on patients’ mobile phones (6 of 77, 7.8%), followed by bed rails (4 of 74, 5.4%) and toilet door handles (4 of 76, 5.3%). We detected a significant correlation between viral load ranges in clinical samples and positivity rate of environmental samples (P < .001).
SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detectable by air samplers, which suggests that the airborne route is not the predominant mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Wearing a surgical mask, appropriate hand hygiene, and thorough environmental disinfection are sufficient infection control measures for COVID-19 patients isolated singly in AIIRs. However, this conclusion may not apply during aerosol-generating procedures or in cohort wards with large numbers of COVID-19 patients.
To describe the infection control preparedness measures undertaken for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 (previously known as 2019 novel coronavirus) in the first 42 days after announcement of a cluster of pneumonia in China, on December 31, 2019 (day 1) in Hong Kong.
A bundled approach of active and enhanced laboratory surveillance, early airborne infection isolation, rapid molecular diagnostic testing, and contact tracing for healthcare workers (HCWs) with unprotected exposure in the hospitals was implemented. Epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases, environmental samples, and air samples were collected and analyzed.
From day 1 to day 42, 42 of 1,275 patients (3.3%) fulfilling active (n = 29) and enhanced laboratory surveillance (n = 13) were confirmed to have the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The number of locally acquired case significantly increased from 1 of 13 confirmed cases (7.7%, day 22 to day 32) to 27 of 29 confirmed cases (93.1%, day 33 to day 42; P < .001). Among them, 28 patients (66.6%) came from 8 family clusters. Of 413 HCWs caring for these confirmed cases, 11 (2.7%) had unprotected exposure requiring quarantine for 14 days. None of these was infected, and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not observed. Environmental surveillance was performed in the room of a patient with viral load of 3.3 × 106 copies/mL (pooled nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) and 5.9 × 106 copies/mL (saliva), respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 1 of 13 environmental samples (7.7%) but not in 8 air samples collected at a distance of 10 cm from the patient’s chin with or without wearing a surgical mask.
Appropriate hospital infection control measures was able to prevent nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
Individuals with bipolar disorder respond to affective symptoms with a range of coping behaviours, which may further maintain the symptoms.
To examine moment-to-moment dynamics between affective states and coping behaviours, and to evaluate the role of cognitive appraisals of internal states as moderators.
Forty-six individuals with bipolar disorder completed a clinical interview and an experience sampling assessment over 6 days. Time-lagged analyses were conducted by multilevel regression modelling.
A total of 1807 momentary entries were analysed. Negative affect predicted an increase in rumination at the subsequent time point (β = 0.21, s.e. = 0.08, P = 0.009, 95% CI 0.05–0.36), and vice versa (β = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, P = 0.009, 95% CI 0.01–0.05). Positive affect predicted an increase in adaptive coping (β = 0.26, s.e. = 0.11, P = 0.018, 95% CI 0.04–0.47), and vice versa (β = 0.02, s.e. = 0.01, P = 0.019, 95% CI 0.00–0.03). Positive affect also predicted a decrease in rumination (β = −0.15, s.e. = 0.06, P = 0.014, 95% CI −0.26 to −0.03), and vice versa (β = −0.03, s.e. = 0.01, P = 0.016, 95% CI −0.06 to −0.01). Extreme cognitive appraisals predicted stronger associations between affective states and coping behaviours.
Feedback loops between affective states and coping behaviours were revealed in the daily life of individuals with bipolar disorder, which were moderated by extreme cognitive appraisals.