To integrate scholastic literature regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the psychological consequences faced by survivors of the 2011 Fukushima earthquake/tsunami/nuclear disaster, we conducted a systematic review of survivor studies concerning the Fukushima disaster. In August 2019, four literature databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and ICHUSHI) were used in the literature search. Peer-reviewed manuscripts reporting psychological consequences, either in English or Japanese, were selected. A total of 79 studies were selected for the review. Twenty-four studies (30.4%) were conducted as part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey—large-scale cohort study recruiting the residents of the entire Fukushima prefecture. Study outcomes were primarily nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. The rates of high-risk individuals determined by the studies varied significantly owing to methodological differences. Nevertheless, these rates were mostly high (nonspecific psychological distress, 8.3%-65.1%; depressive symptoms, 12%-52.0%; and post-traumatic stress symptoms, 10.5%-62.6%). Many studies focused on vulnerable populations such as children, mothers of young children, evacuees, and nuclear power plant workers. However, few studies reported on the intervention methods used or their effect on the survivors. As a conclusion, high rates of individuals with psychological conditions, as well as a wide range of mental conditions, were reported among the Fukushima nuclear disaster survivors in the first 8 years after the disaster. These findings demonstrate the substantial impact of this compound disaster, especially in the context of a nuclear catastrophe.