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We have investigated the thickness dependence of critical current for YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) film with artificial pinning centers on metallic substrate. Artificial pinning centers were introduced by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using YBCO target including YSZ particles. The film over 1 μm in thickness exhibited with high critical current (Ic) of 40.7A in applied magnetic field of 3T parallel to the c-axis at 77K. This value was 5 times as high as the normal YBCO film without artificial pinning centers. The large Ic enabled us to approach to a practical application in the near future. Furthermore, it was clarified that the columnar nano-structure formed in the film, we call “the bamboo structure”, was a dominant pinning center because each Jc-θ curve of all thick films formed a universal line by the normalization of Jc. In addition, it was also found that YSZ addition has an optimal concentration for pinning by the study of YSZ concentration in the film.
We initiated surveillance for surgical-site infections (SSIs) in a Japanese hospital using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions and the approach of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. Patients were observed following clean and clean-contaminated abdominal operations. SSI rates were higher than those of the NNIS System, but there was a trend toward decreased SSI rates in the latter half of the study period.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been causing a large number of serious hospital infections in some of the major hospitals in Japan. Among the precautions to prevent MRSA infection in hospitals, antisepsis or disinfection is one of the most universal. The in vitro activities of commonly used antiseptics and disinfectants against several strains of MRSA isolated in the University of Tokyo Hospital were evaluated.
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