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Thorny lacewings (Rhachiberothidae) are currently distributed only within Africa, whereas they are prevalent in the fossil record of various Cretaceous ambers across the Northern Hemisphere, with a handful of the fossil records from some Eocene European ambers. Four rhachiberothid species in four extinct genera are known from the mid-Cretaceous amber of northern Myanmar. Here, we report further examples of the remarkable palaeodiversity of this group from the same amber deposit, adding the four new fossil genera and seven new species: Acanthoberotha cuspis gen. et sp. nov., Astioberotha falcipes gen. et sp. nov., Stygioberotha siculifera gen. et sp. nov., Uranoberotha chariessa gen. et sp. nov., Creagroparaberotha cuneata sp. nov., Micromantispa galeata sp. nov. and M. spicata sp. nov. Based on a series of well-preserved specimens, we discuss the fine details of the raptorial forelegs and genital segments, which may be important for elucidating the phylogenetic relationships among genera. Our findings reveal an unexpectedly diverse assemblage of thorny lacewings in the Cretaceous System, highlighting the morphologically diverse rhachiberothids in Burmese amber. The discovery of seven additional rhachiberothid species in Myanmar amber suggests the potential for much higher diversity and abundance of the Cretaceous rhachiberothids than previously documented. Furthermore, morphological variation in the raptorial forelegs was found to be extremely diverse among the Burmese amber paraberothines, especially in terms of the size, number and shape of spines (or spine-like setae) on the inner edges of protibia, and the morphological structure of the probasitarsus.
Fungi are one of the most diverse carbon source-assimilating organisms, living as saprobes, parasites and symbionts; they play an important role in carbon cycling in the ecosystem. A lichen thallus provides habitats for many non-lichenized fungi and usually contains large quantities of polyols. However, research has not been undertaken to identify carbon sources of lichen-inhabiting fungi. In this study, we isolated various lichen-inhabiting fungi from surface-sterilized Ramalina spp., Flavoparmelia caperata and Peltigera degenii, and demonstrated their ability to assimilate carbon sources, namely glucose, ribitol and mannitol. Several isolates efficiently assimilated mannitol and ribitol; however, most isolates could assimilate only mannitol or both ribitol and mannitol at low levels. It is suggested that there are different preferences and niche segregation of carbon sources among lichen-inhabiting fungi, and that this assemblage includes fungi with different lifestyles such as saprobes, endophytes and transient visitors.
We have detected [C I] 3P1–3P0 emissions in the gaseous debris disks of 49 Ceti and β Pictoris with the 10 m telescope of the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, which is the first detection of such emissions. The line profiles of [C I] are found to resemble those of CO(J=3–2) observed with the same telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. This result suggests that atomic carbon (C) coexists with CO in the debris disks, and is likely formed by the photodissociation of CO. Assuming an optically thin [C I] emission with the excitation temperature ranging from 30 to 100 K, the column density of C is evaluated to be (2.2 ± 0.2) × 1017 and (2.5 ± 0.7) × 1016 cm−2 for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. The C/CO column density ratio is thus derived to be 54 ± 19 and 69 ± 42 for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. These ratios are higher than those of molecular clouds and diffuse clouds by an order of magnitude. The unusually high ratios of C to CO are likely attributed to a lack of H2 molecules needed to reproduce CO molecules efficiently from C. This result implies a small number of H2 molecules in the gas disk; i.e., there is an appreciable contribution of secondary gas from dust grains.
Pr2−xCexCuO4+δ thin films were grown hetero-epitaxially on (001) SrTiO3 substrates using ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-quality epilayers with a cerium concentrations of x = 0.15 were grown and characterized electrically, structurally, and by magnetization measurements. The Pr2−xCexCuO4+δ films were found to maintain the tetragonal Nd2CuO4 (T′) crystal structure with a linear dependence of lattice constant on the Ce concentration. The superconductivity of the Pr2−xCexCuO4+δ films was maintained up to x ≈ 0.23 with a Tc up to 12.6 K. For x < 0.15, control of the oxygen concentration δ by annealing is crucial for the induction of superconductivity in Pr2−xCexCuO4+δ and this still holds for x > 0.20. We show that the electron mean free path length
may be significantly enhanced by optimizing those annealing conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of
leads to a reduction of the upper critical field, suggesting that superconductivity of Pr2−xCexCuO4+δ is to be considered in the clean limit.
An array of patch-antennas with meandering-gaps on an optical modulator is proposed for wireless millimeter-wave beam-steering through high-speed radio-over-fiber systems. Wireless millimeter-wave can be received by the array of patch-antennas and directly modulated to lightwave by the optical modulator. The wireless millimeter-wave can be steered using the meandering-gaps at the patch-antennas by controlling interaction between millimeter-wave and lightwave electric fields in electro-optic modulation. The basic operation and analysis of the proposed device are discussed. In the experiment, 5 × 5 antenna array in 40 GHz millimeter-wave bands was designed and realized for device characterization and demonstration to wireless millimeter-wave beam-steering. There were five variations of wireless millimeter-wave beam-steering for one-dimensional in xz- or yz-planes that can be obtained with wireless millimeter-wave steerable beams of about ±30°. Additionally, 25 variations of wireless beam-steering can be obtained for two dimension in xyz-space through orthogonal optical modulation. The proposed device is promising to be applied in millimeter-wave/tera-hertz bands for future directional wireless communication and sensing with high-speed and high-resolution operation.
There are faint contaminants near primary stars in the direct imaging of exoplanets. Our goal is to estimate statistically the ratio of exoplanets in the detected batch of point sources by calculating the fraction of contamination. In this study, we compared the detected number of stars with the number of contaminants predicted by our model. We found that the observed number of faint stars were fewer than the predicted results towards the Pleiades and GOODS-South field when the parameters of the conventional stellar distribution models were employed. We thus estimated new model parameters in correspondence to the results of the observations.
Crystal structure change with an applied electric field was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the 1 μm-thick (100)/(001) one-axis oriented tetragonal Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 films prepared on Pt-covered (100) Si substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. As-deposited films were under the strained condition in good agreement with the estimation from the thermal strain applied under the cooling process after the deposition from the Curie temperature to the room temperature. This strain was ascertained to be relaxed by an applied electric field in accompanying with the dramatic increase of the volume fraction of (001) orientation. These results demonstrate the importance of the crystal structure measurement not only as-deposited films, but also after applied electric field, such as after poling.
Raman scattering spectra and ferroelectric properties of epitaxial tetragonal Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 were investigated for polar axis-oriented thin films with various Zr/(Zr + Ti) ratios and by changing the ratios from 0 to 0.50 at different measurement temperatures. The chosen films in the thickness range of 1–2 μm present the advantage of showing small residual strain. The E (TO) modes were successfully isolated using cross-polarization configurations, while A1 (TO) and B1 modes were activated using parallel polarization configurations. Systematic changes in Raman peak positions were observed with changes in the Zr/(Zr + Ti) ratios at different measurement temperatures. It was found in both cases that the tetragonal distortion (c/a-1) and the value of square of spontaneous polarization (Ps2) linearly increased with increasing ω2[A1(1TO)], where a and c are the lattice parameters of a and c-axes. This indicates that monitoring A1(1TO) mode is efficient as a characterization method of ferroelectricity. It can also be used as a novel nondestructive process check or reliability assessment technique during fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using piezoelectric materials.
This study aims to create a prediction model for state-space estimation and to elucidate the required information processing for identifying an external space in prism adaptation. Subjects were 57 healthy students. The subjects were instructed to rapidly perform reaching movements to one of the randomly illuminating light-emitting diode lights. Their movements were measured while wearing prism glasses and after removing that. We provided the following four conditions and control. In target condition, reaching error distance was visually fed back to the subject. In trajectory condition, the trajectory of fingertip movement could be seen, and the final reaching error was not fed back. Two restricted visual feedback conditions were prepared based on a different presentation timing (on-time and late-time conditions). We set up a linear parametric model and an estimation model using Kalman filtering. The goodness of fit between the estimated and observed values in each model was examined using Akaike information criterion (AIC). AIC would be one way to evaluate two models with different number of parameters. In the control, the value of AIC was 179.0 and 154.0 for the linear model and Kalman filtering, respectively, while these values were 173.6 and 161.1 for the target condition, 202.8 and 159.7 for the trajectory condition, 192.7 and 180.8 for the on-time condition, and 206.9 and 174.0 for the late-time condition. Kalman gain in the control was 0.07–0.26. Kalman gain relies on the prior estimation distribution when its value is below 0.5. Kalman gain in the trajectory and late-time conditions was 0.03–0.60 and 0.08–0.95, respectively. The Kalman filter, a state estimation model based on Bayesian theory, expressed the dynamics of the internal model under uncertain feedback information better than the linear parametric model. The probabilistic estimation model can clearly simulate state estimation according to the reliability of the visual feedback.
The LaFeO3 and CaFeOX layers are grown using highly dense target prepared by Pechini method, with which accurate growth rate is achieved. Since the LaFeO3demonstrates the obvious RHEED oscillation until the end of growth, constant growth rate, and the step-terraces structure, the LFO is employed as a buffer and/or reference layer to determine the required pulses to deposit the thickness we desire in the superlattice. Superlattices show the clear satellite peaks and Laue oscillation in the XRD spectra as well as the oscillations caused by the film thickness with a flat surface and superstructure with a flat interface in the x-ray reflection spectrum. The streaky RHEED patterns and step-terraces surface are consistent with the results of spectra using x-ray.
Using DC-RF magnetron sputtering method, the stress free c- and r-oriented Cr2O3 thin films were grown on c- and r-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. The c-oriented film grown at 580 ºC shows the smoothest surface with a surface average (Ra) of 0.17, although the c-surface energy is the highest. The origin of the smooth surface is expected that the presence of a twin grain due to a dislocation of Cr atoms, demonstrated by a reciprocal space mapping. The step height corresponding to that of the bulk is clearly observed. The r-oriented films epitaxially grow without twin grain. The Ra is 1.56 in the film grown at 580 ºC because of deep trenches due to a lattice mismatch and no dislocation like c-oriented films. Since the surface energy of the r-surface is the lowest, the terrace is quite smooth in one grain even at higher substrate temperature of 840 ºC.
The set of non-constant holomorphic mappings between two given compact Riemann surfaces of genus greater than 1 is always finite. This classical statement was made by de Franchis. Furthermore, bounds on the cardinality of the set depending only on the genera of the surfaces have been obtained by a number of mathematicians. The analysis is carried over in this paper to the case of Riemann surfaces of finite analytic type (i.e. compact Riemann surfaces minus a finite set of points) so that the finiteness result, together with a crude but explicit bound depending only on the topological data, may be extended for the number of holomorphic mappings between such surfaces.
Polymerized C60 crystals were grown using the free electron laser (FEL) irradiation. In order to promote the polymerization degree, hole or electron was doped in the C60 crystals grown by the liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation (LLIP) method to eliminate the degradation by oxidation. The specimen grown with the I2 dissolved butylalcohol (BTA, CH3(CH2)3OH) and the C60 saturation o-xylene solution, subsequently pressed at 7GPa, showed only Ag(2)-derived mode at 1456 cm-1 after the FEL irradiation. The specimen belonged to so-called F phase, which is not obtained by the typical photo-induced polymerization process. It was noted that the FEL irradiation for polymerization of C60 was quite useful.
Titanium oxide thin films were deposited at 250 – 400 °C on amorphous SiO2 prepared on n-type Si substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a novel precursor, ethene-1,2-diylbis(tert-butylaminido)diisopropoxotitanium [Ti[N(tBu)C=CN(tBu)](OiPr)2 , Ti-DOT], with oxygen gas as an oxidant. Deposition characteristics of thin films were compared with those using titanium tetraisopropoxide [Ti(OiPr)4, TTIP]. As a result, the deposition amount of TiO2 thin films using Ti-DOT was larger than that of TTIP because of the shorter incubation time in the case of Ti-DOT. Smaller surface roughness was observed for the films using Ti-DOT. In addition, a good conformability was obtained on amorphous SiO2 hole prepared on n-type Si substrate substrate with aspect ratio of 5.
The actual transverse and longitudinal displacement of PZT thick film was measured using a newly developed atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM is attached a feedback circuit named “torsion feedback”. The torsion and Z-height feedback circuits control an AFM cantilever to follow piezoelectric deformation of the sample. To measure transverse displacement, the cantilever contacts the edge of sample. The transverse displacement is determined from the torsion feedback signal absolutely. To measure longitudinal displacement, the cantilever contacts the center of sample. The longitudinal displacement is determined from Z-height feedback signal absolutely. A 5-μm-thick PZT film was prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. The film sample was shaped square pillar. The side electrode length (L) of square pillar shaped sample was ranged from 1000 μm to 10 μm. The relation between side electrode length and the transverse or the longitudinal displacements were investigated. With decreasing L, the transverse displacement decreased nonlinearly, and the longitudinal displacement increased nonlinearly. The finite element method (FEM) simulation suggests that the substrate clamped PZT film behaved nonlinearly. The effective -d31 and d33 were calculated from the measured displacement, and these values increase with decreasing L. The effective d33 and -d31 showed correlation, and the ratio was d33 : -d31 = 5.3 : 1 , whereas the bulk ratiois d33 : -d31 = 2.4 : 1.This result suggests that the substrate clamping effect of the transverse displacement was larger than that of the longitudinal displacement.
The CaFeOX(CFO) and LaFeO3(LFO) thin films as well as superlattices were fabricated on SrTiO3(100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The tetragonal LFO film grew with layer-by-layer growth mode until approximately 40 layers. In the case of CFO, initial three layers showed layer-by-layer growth, and afterward the growth mode was transferred to two layers-by-two layers (TLTL) growth mode. The RHEED oscillation was observed until the end of the growth, approximately 50nm. Orthorhombic twin CaFeO2.5 (CFO2.5) structure was obtained. However, it is expected that the initial three CFO layers are CaFeO3 (CFO3) with the valence of Fe4+. The CFO and LFO superlattice showed a step-terraces surface, and the superlattice satellite peaks in a 2θ-θ and reciprocal space mapping (RSM) x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, indicating that the clear interfaces were fabricated.
The dentate gyrus (DG), a part of the hippocampal formation, is a candidate target of antidepressants and may play a role in the development of depressive syndrome; however, there is no direct neurobiological evidence supporting this theory. Here, we examined whether DG integrity is necessary for the behavioural effects of acute or chronic antidepressant treatment. Microinjection of colchicine into DG severely damaged the granule cells, as confirmed by morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioural analyses. Acute treatment with desipramine and fluoxetine decreased the immobility of saline-treated rats in the forced swimming test, whereas this decrease was inhibited in colchicine-treated rats. Chronic treatment with desipramine and fluoxetine also decreased the immobility of saline-treated rats; however, the extensive DG damage induced by colchicine had no effect on this decrease. In the novelty-suppressed feeding test, chronic treatment with desipramine and fluoxetine decreased the latency to feed in saline-treated rats while, once again, the extensive DG damage caused by colchicine had no effect on this decrease. Thus, we concluded that DG integrity was required for the behavioural effects of acute but not chronic antidepressant treatment; this disparity was not due to the time interval between surgery and behavioural tests. These findings indicate that treatment duration determines the influence of DG integrity on antidepressant effects.