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Little is known about the dynamics of marine food chains spanning primary to higher trophic levels on centennial and longer timescales, especially where the supply of dissolved iron limits primary productivity. To elucidate the long-term dynamics of biological productivity in the Coastal Oyashio (CO), which is a major pathway for transporting dissolved iron into the western North Pacific from winter to spring, we reconstructed the lower trophic level productivity over the last 3000 years in the CO. Our results demonstrate that the concentrations and mass accumulation rates of both Chl-a (chlorophyll a and its derivatives) and biogenic opal used as proxies of primary productivity, and steryl chlorin esters (SCEs) used as that of zooplankton productivity, show a millennial-scale increasing trend and centennial-scale variability beginning ca. AD 400. SCEs were positively correlated with Chl-a, indicating that changes in zooplankton productivity were induced by bottom-up control of primary productivity. The Chl-a and SCEs showed synchronous centennial-scale patterns with a relative abundance of sea-ice-associated diatom species transported by CO, and with a ventilation index in the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water. This synchronous pattern indicates that lower trophic-level productivity during the spring bloom responded to the intensity of iron-replete CO.
An outbreak of serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae occurred among the residents of a relief facility. Pneumonia developed in 5 of 99 residents (attack rate, 5.1%). We obtained pharyngeal specimens from non-onset residents, and S. pneumoniae was isolated from 6 individuals (6.4%), 5 of whom had serotype 19A.
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is widely used to treat
psychiatric disorders such as depression, its precise neural mechanisms
To investigate the time course of changes in cerebral blood flow during
Cerebral blood flow was quantified serially prior to, during and after
acute ECT in six patients with depression under anaesthesia using
[15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET).
Cerebral blood flow during ECT increased particularly in the basal
ganglia, brain-stem, diencephalon, amygdala, vermis and the frontal,
temporal and parietal cortices compared with that before ECT. The flow
increased in the thalamus and decreased in the anterior cingulate and
medial frontal cortex soon after ECT compared with that before ECT.
These results suggest a relationship between the centrencephalic system
and seizure generalisation. Further, they suggest that some neural
mechanisms of action of ECT are mediated via brain regions including the
anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex and thalamus.
High‐Tc superconducting Y‐Ba‐Cu‐O films were prepared on Mg0(100) substrate by MO‐CVD technique without post annealing. The highest Tc obtained was 85K. The film was made up of dense matrix and dispersed fine particles. The Y‐Ba‐Cu composition of matrix was nearly equal to the 1:2:3 superconducting phase. The film was highly oriented with c‐axis perpendicular to the substrate. The lattice constant of the film was 11.68A.
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