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Radioactive nuclides such as radiocarbon can be good tracers for investigating the circulation of underground carbon and water. Volcanic gas can be sampled reliably for 14C analysis and prepared for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). In this paper, we establish a method for the measurement of 14C in volcanic gas, and measure the amounts of 14C in various volcanic gases. Samples of fumarolic gas from some Japanese volcanoes were found to contain 0.5 to 4.2 pMC, while those from White Island in New Zealand contained 2.6 pMC. Dissolved gas from Lake Nyos, Cameroon, contained 0.4 to 4.8 pMC. The data indicate a mixing process between surface carbon and deep carbon.
Double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been synthesized by the DC abnormal glow discharge plasma CVD method using methane and hydrogen gas on a Si substrate coated with catalyst. Fe(NO3)2 and Mo(CH3COCHCOCH3)2O2 with Al2O3 support were used as catalysts. The growth temperatures were 1000 − 1400°C and the gas pressures were 9kPa - 13kPa. DC plasma was generated between an array of four W cathodes and a Cu disk anode, and the applied power was 4000–10000W (2.5–4.0A per cathode, 400–800V). Samples were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy using 514.5 nm Ar ion laser excitation. The HRTEM images showed that many carbon nanotubes had a concentric cylindrical graphene layer structure (DWCNTs). We measured the diameters of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from HRTEM images. The outer diameter of the DWNT was 1.52–1.64nm and the inner diameter of the DWNT was 0.73–0.81nm.
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