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Background: Thirty-three Japanese children and adolescents diagnosed with an anxiety disorder participated in individual or group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) that was modelled after evidence-based intervention programs developed in Western countries. Method: The treatment consisted of: (a) building rapport and education; (b) identifying emotions and recognizing cognitive self-talk; (c) challenging anxious self-talk; (d) developing an anxiety hierarchy and in vivo exposures; and (e) planning for future challenges. Results: Three months following treatment, 20 of the 33 children and adolescents (60.91%) no longer met criteria for their principal anxiety disorders and 16 (48.48%) were free from all anxiety disorders. Self-reported anxiety, depression, and cognitive errors also decreased significantly from pre- to post-treatment and these gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. For the most part, similar outcomes were found in both the group and individual formats of CBT. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary support for the transportability of CBT in both an individual and group format to Japan.
ZnO and SiO2 thin films coated on plastic materials were investigated for the protection against solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the hard coating. Using diethylzinc (DEZ) as the organic zinc material, we attempt to deposit ZnO thin films on polycarbonate (PC) resin at room temperature by the cathode deposition technique of the plasma enhanced (PE) CVD method. It was found that the rf power and the substrate temperature intensively influenced on the deposition rate. The deposition rate increased with the rf power up to 100W, but decreased with the RF power above 100W, and also decreased with increasing the substrate temperature. In a xenon arc weatherability test, the ZnO-coated PC plates exhibited remarkable protection characteristics against UV radiation. They kept a smooth surface and no- coloring even if UV light irradiated for 1000 hours. Moreover, SiO2film deposited from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was over-coated on the ZnO film / PC plates. These films showed a drastic improvement in the hardness. Therefore, these films are expected as the UV-cut and hard coating for the automotive parts.
New negative-type photosensitive polyamic acids, precursors of polyimides, developable with aqueous alkaline solutions were synthesized. Among diamine monomers having a photofunctional group, 2′-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl 3,5-diaminobenzoate yields high molecular weight polyamic acids. A photosensitive polymer composition consisting of Michler's ketone and a thermally stable peroxide, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrakis(t-butyldioxycarbonyl)-benzophenone, results in high photosensitivity. The photosensitive coating of the composition is soluble in aqueous alkaline solutions as well as in organic aprotic polar solvents and either can be used as a developer of the coating. However, resolution of the patterns is quite different especially with thick films. Solvent developers result in poor resolution whereas aqueous alkaline developers give patterns of high aspect ratio even with thick films. This is probably due to the difference in the diffusion efficiency and swelling property of the polymer to the developers.
Effects of copolymerizing with an ordinary diamine monomer on photosensitivities and film properties of the polyimides derived from their precursors are also discussed.
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