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Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a rare congenital heart defect. We report an infant with a mixed form of supracardiac TAPVC, in whom all pulmonary veins, except the right upper, entered a pulmonary venous confluence that is connected to a vertical vein and drained into the superior vena caval–right atrial junction. Several segmental right upper pulmonary veins entered the superior vena cava, superior to the entry of the vertical vein. Surgical repair consisted of the Warden procedure combined with direct anastomosis of the vertical vein to the left atrium. Separate pulmonary venous drainage pathways decreased the risk of post-operative pulmonary venous obstruction. Our patient had an uneventful post-operative course and encouraging 2-month follow-up echocardiography. Careful follow-up is warranted to detect post-operative complications, including obstruction of the pulmonary venous and cavoatrial anastomoses.
Coronary-pulmonary artery fistula is a rare anomaly in which an aortopulmonary collateral artery arises from a coronary artery, often seen in patients with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. In the presented case, a coronary-pulmonary artery fistula arose from the left main coronary artery and supplied blood flow to a left upper lobe segment. The life-sized three-dimensional printed model was helpful in pre-surgical planning for unifocalisation of the aortopulmonary collateral arteries.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute kidney injury after first-stage surgical palliation in patients with a single ventricle and to explore associated risk factors and outcomes.
Design and patients
This single-centre retrospective study included neonates who underwent either Norwood or Hybrid procedure from 2008 to 2015 for a single ventricle. Postoperative acute kidney injury was defined using the paediatric risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage renal disease (pRIFLE), criteria within 72 hours of the procedure.
Our cohort (n=48) underwent surgical palliation at a mean (SD) age of 12 (11) days. Postoperative acute kidney injury was diagnosed in 14 (29%) patients. The prevalence of acute kidney injury in the Hybrid group was 16% and 53% in the Norwood group. Infants who developed acute kidney injury underwent surgery at younger ages [6 (5–10) versus 10 (8–16) days, p=0.016], and had a higher peak lactate level in the initial 24 hours [5.9 (4.2–9.1) versus 3.4 (2.4–6.7), p=0.007]. Norwood procedure was significantly associated with acute kidney injury [odds ratio 11.7 (95% confidence interval 1.3–101.9), p=0.03]. ICU stay [38 (21–84) versus 16 (6–45) days, p=0.038] and time to extubation [204 (120–606) versus 72 (26–234) hours, p=0.014] were longer in those with acute kidney injury. The two patients who developed early postoperative renal failure as per pRIFLE died before discharge from associated comorbidities.
Acute kidney injury occurs in a third of the patients with single ventricle after surgical palliation but is mostly transient. Norwood, compared with Hybrid procedure, is a risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury, which, in turn, is associated with longer ICU stay and time to extubation.
The effect of Hybrid stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome on right ventricular function is unknown. We sought to compare right ventricular function in normal neonates and those with hypoplastic left heart syndrome before Hybrid palliation and to assess the effect of Hybrid palliation on right ventricular function, using the right ventricular myocardial performance index and the ratio of systolic and diastolic durations.
We carried out a retrospective review of echocardiographic data on 23 infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent Hybrid palliation and 35 normal controls. Data were acquired before Hybrid and after Hybrid palliation – post 1, 0–4 days; post 2, 1 week; post 3, 2–3 weeks; post 4, 1–1.5 months following Hybrid palliation.
Myocardial performance index and ratio of systolic and diastolic durations were higher in the pre-Hybrid hypoplastic left heart syndrome group (n=23) – 0.47±0.16 versus 0.25±0.07, p<0.001; 1.59±0.44 versus 1.09±0.14, p<0.0001 – compared with controls (n=35). There was no significant change in the myocardial performance index at any of the post-Hybrid time points. Ratio of systolic and diastolic durations increased significantly 2 weeks after Hybrid – post 3: 2.08±0.62 and post 4: 2.21±0.45 versus pre: 1.59±0.44, p=0.043 and 0.003. There were no significant differences in parameters between sub-groups of infants who died (n=10) and survivors (n=13).
Right ventricular myocardial performance index and ratio of systolic and diastolic durations were significantly higher in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome before intervention compared with controls. The ratio of systolic and diastolic durations increased significantly 2 weeks after Hybrid palliation. Our data suggest that infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome have right ventricular dysfunction before intervention, which worsens over 2 weeks after Hybrid palliation.
Interest in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the management of children with CHD has increased. There are, however, no current guidelines for their routine use. The aim of this review article is to provide an update on the data regarding the use of BNP/NT-proBNP in the evaluation and surgical treatment of children with CHD. BNP/NT-proBNP levels in children with CHD vary substantially according to age, laboratory assay methods, and the specific haemodynamics associated with the individual congenital heart lesion. The accuracy of BNP/NT-proBNP as supplemental markers in the integrated screening, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of CHD has been established. In particular, the use of BNP/NT-proBNP as a prognostic indicator in paediatric cardiac surgery has been widely demonstrated, as well as its role in the subsequent follow-up of surgical patients. Most of the data, however, are derived from single-centre retrospective studies using multivariable analysis; prospective, randomised clinical trials designed to evaluate the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of routine BNP/NT-proBNP use in CHD are lacking. The results of well-designed, prospective clinical trials should assist in formulating guidelines and expert consensus recommendations for its use in patients with CHD. Finally, the use of new point-of-care testing methods that use less invasive sampling techniques – capillary blood specimens – may contribute to a more widespread use of the BNP assay, especially in neonates and infants, as well as contribute to the development of screening programmes for CHD using this biomarker.
Objective: Placement of peritoneal drainage catheters intra-operatively has been shown to help prevent fluid overload in children recovering from surgery for two-ventricle heart disease. We aimed to determine whether this practice is also helpful in children recovering from Fontan palliation. Material and methods: A retrospective review was performed on children with single-ventricle anatomy undergoing Fontan palliation at our institution from 2007 to 2011. Variables in those with peritoneal drainage were compared with those without using t-tests, Mann–Whitney U-tests, chi-square tests, or analysis of variance for repeated measures as appropriate. Data were represented as mean with standard deviation unless otherwise noted. Results: A total of 43 children were reviewed, 21 (49%) with peritoneal drainage catheters. No complications from catheter placement occurred. The groups did not differ with regard to cardiopulmonary bypass duration, dominant ventricle, pre-operative haemodynamic data, fenestration use, and initial intensive care unit ventilation index. Central venous pressures, vasoactive medication use, and diuretic use during the first 48 hours were also not statistically different. At 48 hours, the median fluid balance was −9 (interquartile range : −50, +20) in those with peritoneal drainage and +77 cc/kg (interquartile range : +22, +96) in those without (p < 0.001), yet median duration of mechanical ventilation was 40 hours (range: 19–326) in those with peritoneal drainage and 23 hours (range: 9–92) in those without, p = 0.01. Conclusion: Patients with peritoneal drainage recovering from Fontan palliation achieved negative fluid balance as compared with those without peritoneal drainage, although this difference was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation.
To describe the haemodynamic response of children who receive arginine vasopressin for haemodynamic instability after cardiac surgery and to identify clinical variables associated with a favourable response.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed patients less than or equal to 6 years undergoing open heart surgery in our institution between January, 2009 and July, 2010 who received arginine vasopressin during the first 7 days post operation. Favourable responders were defined as those in whom blood pressure was increased or maintained and catecholamine score was decreased, or blood pressure was increased by greater than or equal to 10% of baseline and catecholamine score was unchanged at 6 hours following arginine vasopressin initiation.
Of the 34 patients identified, 17 (50%) patients responded favourably to arginine vasopressin. At 6 hours, the mean blood pressure was increased by 32.2% in responders as compared with 4.6% in non-responders, with a p-value less than 0.001. The mean catecholamine score decreased by 30.1% in responders and increased by 7.6% in non-responders, with a p-value less than 0.001. Anthropometric, demographic, and intra-operative variables were similar in both groups, as was maximum dose of arginine vasopressin. The median time after arrival to the intensive care unit at which arginine vasopressin was initiated, however, was later in those who responded, 20 hours as compared with those who did not, 6 hours, with a p-value equal to 0.032.
Arginine vasopressin therapy led to haemodynamic improvement in only half of the children in this study, and improvement was more likely to occur if arginine vasopressin was initiated after the post-operative night.
Clinicians working in the field of congenital and paediatric cardiology have long felt the need for a common diagnostic and therapeutic nomenclature and coding system with which to classify patients of all ages with congenital and acquired cardiac disease. A cohesive and comprehensive system of nomenclature, suitable for setting a global standard for multicentric analysis of outcomes and stratification of risk, has only recently emerged, namely, The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This review, will give an historical perspective on the development of systems of nomenclature in general, and specifically with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Finally, current and future efforts to merge such systems into the paperless environment of the electronic health or patient record on a global scale are briefly explored.
On October 6, 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. In January, 2005, the International Nomenclature Committee was constituted in Canada as The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. This International Society now has three working groups. The Nomenclature Working Group developed The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code and will continue to maintain, expand, update, and preserve this International Code. It will also provide ready access to the International Code for the global paediatric and congenital cardiology and cardiac surgery communities, related disciplines, the healthcare industry, and governmental agencies, both electronically and in published form. The Definitions Working Group will write definitions for the terms in the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, building on the previously published definitions from the Nomenclature Working Group. The Archiving Working Group, also known as The Congenital Heart Archiving Research Team, will link images and videos to the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. The images and videos will be acquired from cardiac morphologic specimens and imaging modalities such as echocardiography, angiography, computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as intraoperative images and videos.
Efforts are ongoing to expand the usage of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code to other areas of global healthcare. Collaborative efforts are underway involving the leadership of The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease and the representatives of the steering group responsible for the creation of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, administered by the World Health Organisation. Similar collaborative efforts are underway involving the leadership of The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease and the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation, who are the owners of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine or “SNOMED”.
The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code was created by specialists in the field to name and classify paediatric and congenital cardiac disease and its treatment. It is a comprehensive code that can be freely downloaded from the internet (http://www.IPCCC.net) and is already in use worldwide, particularly for international comparisons of outcomes. The goal of this effort is to create strategies for stratification of risk and to improve healthcare for the individual patient. The collaboration with the World Heath Organization, the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation, and the healthcare industry, will lead to further enhancement of the International Code, and to its more universal use.
A complication is an event or occurrence that is associated with a disease or a healthcare intervention, is a departure from the desired course of events, and may cause, or be associated with, suboptimal outcome. A complication does not necessarily represent a breech in the standard of care that constitutes medical negligence or medical malpractice. An operative or procedural complication is any complication, regardless of cause, occurring (1) within 30 days after surgery or intervention in or out of the hospital, or (2) after 30 days during the same hospitalization subsequent to the operation or intervention. Operative and procedural complications include both intraoperative/intraprocedural complications and postoperative/postprocedural complications in this time interval.
The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has set forth a comprehensive list of complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease, related to cardiac, pulmonary, renal, haematological, infectious, neurological, gastrointestinal, and endocrinal systems, as well as those related to the management of anaesthesia and perfusion, and the transplantation of thoracic organs. The objective of this manuscript is to examine the definitions of operative morbidity as they relate specifically to a collection of loosely related topics that include the following groups of complications: 1) Complications of the Integument, 2) Complications of the Vascular System, 3) Complications of the Vascular-Line(s), 4) Complications of Wounds. These specific definitions and terms will be used to track morbidity associated with surgical and transcatheter interventions and other forms of therapy in a common language across many separate databases.
As surgical survival in children with congenital cardiac disease has improved in recent years, focus has necessarily shifted to reducing the morbidity of congenital cardiac malformations and their treatment. A comprehensive list of complications is presented. This list is a component of a systems-based compendium of complications that will standardize terminology and thereby allow the study and quantification of morbidity in patients with congenital cardiac malformations. Clinicians caring for patients with congenital cardiac disease will be able to use this list for databases, initiatives to improve quality, reporting of complications, and comparing strategies of treatment.
A large body of literature devoted to “patient safety” and error prevention exists and utilizes a nomenclature that can be applied specifically to the field of congenital cardiac disease and aid in the goals of increasing the safety of patients, decreasing medical error, minimizing mortality and morbidity, and evaluating quality of care. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest and document a quality of health care taxonomy and the appropriate application of this nomenclature of “patient safety” to the specialty of congenital cardiac disease, with special emphasis on the following ten terms: morbidity, complication, medical error, adverse event, harm, near miss, iatrogenesis, iatrogenic complication, medical injury, and sentinel event. Each of these terms is commonly utilized in the medical literature without universal agreement on their meaning and relationship. It is our hope that the standardization of the definitions of these terms, as they are applied to the analysis of outcomes of the treatments applied to patients with congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, will facilitate improved methodologies to assess and improve quality of care in our profession.
In 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. This committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. The working component of this international nomenclature society has been The International Working Group for Mapping and Coding of Nomenclatures for Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, also known as the Nomenclature Working Group. The Nomenclature Working Group created the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, which is available for free download from the internet at [http://www.IPCCC.NET].
In previous publications from the Nomenclature Working Group, unity has been produced by cross-mapping separate systems for coding, as for example in the treatment of the functionally univentricular heart, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, or congenitally corrected transposition. In this manuscript, we review the nomenclature, definition, and classification of heterotaxy, also known as the heterotaxy syndrome, placing special emphasis on the philosophical approach taken by both the Bostonian school of segmental notation developed from the teachings of Van Praagh, and the European school of sequential segmental analysis. The Nomenclature Working Group offers the following definition for the term “heterotaxy”: “Heterotaxy is synonymous with ‘visceral heterotaxy’ and ‘heterotaxy syndrome’. Heterotaxy is defined as an abnormality where the internal thoraco-abdominal organs demonstrate abnormal arrangement across the left-right axis of the body. By convention, heterotaxy does not include patients with either the expected usual or normal arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis, also known as ‘situs solitus’, nor patients with complete mirror-imaged arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis also known as ‘situs inversus’.” “Situs ambiguus is defined as an abnormality in which there are components of situs solitus and situs inversus in the same person. Situs ambiguus, therefore, can be considered to be present when the thoracic and abdominal organs are positioned in such a way with respect to each other as to be not clearly lateralised and thus have neither the usual, or normal, nor the mirror-imaged arrangements.”
The heterotaxy syndrome as thus defined is typically associated with complex cardiovascular malformations. Proper description of the heart in patients with this syndrome requires complete description of both the cardiac relations and the junctional connections of the cardiac segments, with documentation of the arrangement of the atrial appendages, the ventricular topology, the nature of the unions of the segments across the atrioventricular and the ventriculoarterial junctions, the infundibular morphologies, and the relationships of the arterial trunks in space. The position of the heart in the chest, and the orientation of the cardiac apex, must also be described separately. Particular attention is required for the venoatrial connections, since these are so often abnormal. The malformations within the heart are then analysed and described separately as for any patient with suspected congenital cardiac disease. The relationship and arrangement of the remaining thoraco-abdominal organs, including the spleen, the lungs, and the intestines, also must be described separately, because, although common patterns of association have been identified, there are frequent exceptions to these common patterns. One of the clinically important implications of heterotaxy syndrome is that splenic abnormalities are common. Investigation of any patient with the cardiac findings associated with heterotaxy, therefore, should include analysis of splenic morphology. The less than perfect association between the state of the spleen and the form of heart disease implies that splenic morphology should be investigated in all forms of heterotaxy, regardless of the type of cardiac disease. The splenic morphology should not be used to stratify the form of disease within the heart, and the form of cardiac disease should not be used to stratify the state of the spleen. Intestinal malrotation is another frequently associated lesion that must be considered. Some advocate that all patients with heterotaxy, especially those with isomerism of the right atrial appendages or asplenia syndrome, should have a barium study to evaluate for intestinal malrotation, given the associated potential morbidity. The cardiac anatomy and associated cardiac malformations, as well as the relationship and arrangement of the remaining thoraco-abdominal organs, must be described separately. It is only by utilizing this stepwise and logical progression of analysis that it becomes possible to describe correctly, and to classify properly, patients with heterotaxy.
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