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Organic data have the potential to enable innovative measurements and research designs by virtue of capturing human behavior and interactions in social, educational, and organizational processes. Yet what makes organic data valuable also raises privacy concerns for those individuals whose personal information is being collected and analyzed. This chapter discusses the potential privacy threats posed by organic datasets and the technical tools available to ameliorate such threats. Also noted is the importance for educators and research scientists to participate in interdisciplinary research that addresses the privacy challenges arising from the collection and use of organic data.
The application scopes of two different reductive perturbation methods to derive the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation and coupled KdV (CKdV) equation in two-temperature-ion dusty plasma are given by using the particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical method in the present paper. It suggests that the reductive perturbation method (RPM) is valid if the amplitude of the CKdV solitary wave is small enough. However, for the KdV solitary wave, RPM is valid not only if the amplitude of the KdV solitary wave is small enough, but also if the nonlinear coefficient of the KdV equation is not tending to zero.
This paper presents an experimental study on how both variable solid volume fractions and aspect ratios (length/width) of a centre-channel rectangular porous patch under aligned configuration of rigid and emergent stems impact the flow behaviour and wake structure. This study forms an essential extension to the existing fundamentals and knowledge on this topic. Through rigorous experimental tests by velocity measurement and dye visualization, the aspect ratio, rarely addressed before, is confirmed to play a critical role. Vortex street, unable to be triggered under a low solid volume fraction, however, can be generated by elongating the patch (increasing the aspect ratio). The key reason is that patch elongation promotes the generation of the wake vortex street by producing a relatively high transverse velocity gradient in the wake region. Meanwhile, Kelvin–Helmholtz vortex streets are triggered along the two patch lateral edges, re-increasing the in-patch velocity and imposing contributions to the wake vortex streets generation. By scaling the characteristic velocity (at the wake vortex initiation position and patch trailing edge) and solid volume fraction with the patch aspect ratio, three non-dimensional threshold maps can be established to express the combined effects of the solid volume fraction and aspect ratio on the initiation of the wake vortex street. They could be alternatively used for theoretical analysis and implementation on wake formation and structure subject to parameter availability.
The northern Alxa region is located in the central segment of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Many controversies and deficiencies still exist regarding the magma source characteristics, petrogenesis and tectonic regimes during the late Palaeozoic – early Mesozoic period within this region. This study presents whole-rock compositions and zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic data for three early Mesozoic I- and A-type granitic plutons occurring in the northern Alxa region. The Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids yielded zircon 206Pb–238U ages of 245 ± 5 Ma and 245 ± 2 Ma, respectively. The variable positive zircon ϵHf(t) values between +1.8 and +11.8, with young TDM ages of 425–837 Ma, indicate that these I-type granitoids were mainly derived from juvenile crustal materials. The Wulantaolegai pluton has a zircon 206Pb–238U age of 237 ± 2 Ma and is classified as having high-K calc-alkaline A-type affinity. Furthermore, the positive zircon ϵHf(t) values of the Wulantaolegai granite range from +3.3 to +8.7 with young TDM ages of 545–778 Ma, suggesting the involvement of a juvenile crustal source as well. Furthermore, the major-element compositions of the Chahanhada and Wulantaolegai granites suggest the input of metasedimentary components. Geochemically, the Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids show an arc affinity, while the Wulantaolegai granite exhibits a post-collisional affinity. However, with regional data, we suggest that the Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids were also emplaced in a post-collisional setting, and the arc affinity was probably inherited from recycled subduction-related materials. These lines of evidence obtained in this study enable us to argue that the Palaeo-Asian Ocean in the central segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt closed before Middle Triassic time.
In this work, we propose using an ensemble Kalman method to learn a nonlinear eddy viscosity model, represented as a tensor basis neural network, from velocity data. Data-driven turbulence models have emerged as a promising alternative to traditional models for providing closure mapping from the mean velocities to Reynolds stresses. Most data-driven models in this category need full-field Reynolds stress data for training, which not only places stringent demand on the data generation but also makes the trained model ill-conditioned and lacks robustness. This difficulty can be alleviated by incorporating the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) solver in the training process. However, this would necessitate developing adjoint solvers of the RANS model, which requires extra effort in code development and maintenance. Given this difficulty, we present an ensemble Kalman method with an adaptive step size to train a neural-network-based turbulence model by using indirect observation data. To our knowledge, this is the first such attempt in turbulence modelling. The ensemble method is first verified on the flow in a square duct, where it correctly learns the underlying turbulence models from velocity data. Then the generalizability of the learned model is evaluated on a family of separated flows over periodic hills. It is demonstrated that the turbulence model learned in one flow can predict flows in similar configurations with varying slopes.
Traditionally, the strata of the Luonie Valley, Dechang County, SW Sichuan, China, are considered to contain a suite of felsic volcanic rocks (the Huili Group) that erupted after c. 1050 Ma. However, we report here new age constraints, elemental and Lu–Hf isotope geochemistry for a different suite of older basaltic agglomerate lava, basaltic tuff lava and basalt from the same area, which we name the Luonie Formation. New dating results show that the basaltic volcanic suite of the upper part of the Luonie Formation formed at 1126.1 ± 9.9 Ma, significantly earlier than deposition of the Huili Group, but comparable in age to the 1142 ± 16 Ma Laowushan Formation in central Yunnan Province. Granite intrusion into the Luonie Formation dated 1050.7 ± 12.7 Ma provides crucial supporting evidence for this earlier depositional age. We also report a maximum sedimentary age of c. 1158 Ma for the underlying arkose, implying stratigraphic conformity with the basaltic volcanic rock suite.
The ϵHf(t) values of the basaltic volcanic rocks are mainly positive, indicating that the rocks are mainly derived from the depleted mantle and slightly stained by crustal materials. The characteristics of P*, Nb* and Zr* anomalies also support this view. The distribution patterns of trace and rare earth elements indicate that the basaltic volcanic rocks formed in an extensional setting. The Zr/4–Y–2Nb and Th–Nb/16–Zr/117 discrimination diagrams also provide evidence for this understanding. Lithofacies analysis shows that basaltic volcanic wrocks with the characteristics of both continental and marine facies should be formed in a littoral–neritic environment. We propose here that the evidence is consistent with a phase of continental extension that preceded the convergence of the SW Yangtze Block to form part of Rodinia.
Different kinds of waves and instabilities in the F-region of the ionosphere excited by the relative streaming of the dust beam to the background plasma are studied in the present paper. The dispersion relations of different waves are obtained on different time scales. It is found from our numerical results that there are both a stable upper hybrid wave on the electron vibration time scale and a stable dust ion cyclotron wave on the ion vibration time scale. However, the chaotic behaviour appears on the dust particles vibration time scale due to the relative streaming of the dust particles to the background plasma. Such instabilities may drive plasma irregularities that could affect radar backscatter from the clouds.
The complex sea ice conditions in Arctic waters has different impacts on the legs of the Arctic passage, and ships of specific ice classes face different navigation risks. Therefore, the quantitative analysis of the navigation risks faced in different legs has important practical significance. Based on the POLARIS introduced by IMO, the sea ice condition data from 2011 to 2020 was used to quantify the navigation risk of the Arctic Northeast passage. The risk index outcome (RIO) of the Arctic Northeast Passage were calculated. The navigable windows of the route for ice class 1A ships sailing independently under different sea ice conditions in the last decade were determined, with a navigable period of 91 days under normal sea ice conditions, approximately 175 days under light sea ice conditions and only week 40 close to navigation under severe sea ice conditions. The three critical waters affecting the safety of ships were identified. Combined with the navigable windows and critical waters, recommendations on ship's navigation and manipulation and recommendations for stakeholders were given. The method and results provided reference and support for the assessment of the navigation risk of ships in the Northeast Passage and safety navigation and operations of ships, and satisfied the needs of relevant countries and enterprises to rationally arrange shipment dates and sailing plans based on different ice classes of ships.
In this paper, we designed two different configurations with locally isothermal sidewalls, where the temperature is set to be the bulk temperature, to control the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection, namely two-point control and four-point control. At fixed Rayleigh number $Ra=10^8$ and Prandtl number $Pr=2$, a series of direct numerical simulations are performed on both two-dimensional (2-D) and quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2-D) cavities with both types of control, where the width of the control area is fixed at $\delta _c=0.05$ and the vertical distance from the cavity centre $h_c$ varies from 0 to 0.45 with an interval of 0.05. Our results show that the control effect depends on $h_c$, the control configurations as well as the flow dimensions. For 2-D cavities, both two-point control and four-point control suppress the flow reversal when $h_c \geq 0.05$, accompanied by the enhancement of vertical heat transfer and the strength of the large-scale circulation. For quasi-2-D cavities, the suppression of the flow reversals is obvious with two-point control and $h_c\geq 0.05$, while the effect is rather limited with four-point control. Further experiments with $Pr=5.7$ and $Ra$ up to $7.36\times10^8$ show that two-point control with $h_c=0.15$ can effectively suppress the flow reversal, while two-point control with $h_c=0$ can suppress the reversals at low $Ra=1.93\times 10^8$ and activate them at higher $Ra=7.36\times 10^8$, which agrees well with our numerical simulations.
We present an experimental study on controlling the number of vortices and the torque in a Taylor–Couette flow of water for Reynolds numbers from 660 to 1320. Different flow states are achieved in the annulus of width $d$ between the inner rotating and outer stationary cylinders through manipulating the initial height of the water annulus. We show that the torque exerted on the inner cylinder of the Taylor–Couette system can be reduced by up to 20 % by controlling the flow at a state where fewer than the nominal number of vortices develop between the cylinders. This flow state is achieved by starting the system with an initial water annulus height $h_0$ (which nominally corresponds to $h_0/d$ vortices), then gradually adding water into the annulus while the inner cylinder keeps rotating. During this filling process the flow topology is so persistent that the number of vortices does not increase; instead, the vortices are greatly stretched in the axial (vertical) direction. We show that this state with stretched vortices is sustainable until the vortices are stretched to around 2.05 times their nominal size. Our experiments reveal that by manipulating the initial height of the liquid annulus we are able to generate different flow states and demonstrate how the different flow states manifest themselves in global momentum transport.
The chase procedure for existential rules is an indispensable tool for several database applications, where its termination guarantees the decidability of these tasks. Most previous studies have focused on the skolem chase variant and its termination analysis. It is known that the restricted chase variant is a more powerful tool in termination analysis provided a database is given. But all-instance termination presents a challenge since the critical database and similar techniques do not work. In this paper, we develop a novel technique to characterize the activeness of all possible cycles of a certain length for the restricted chase, which leads to the formulation of a framework of parameterized classes of the finite restricted chase, called
rule sets. This approach applies to any class of finite skolem chase identified with a condition of acyclicity. More generally, we show that the approach can be applied to the hierarchy of bounded rule sets previously only defined for the skolem chase. Experiments on a collection of ontologies from the web show the applicability of the proposed methods on real-world ontologies.
Dolostones are widely developed in the middle Permian rocks of East Yunnan, China, mainly in the shoal-facies Maokou Formation. The previously reported dolostone formation mechanisms cannot explain the distribution and geochemical characteristics of these dolostones, in particular their strontium, magnesium and oxygen isotope signatures. To help predict the distribution of dolostone reservoirs and reduce the exploration risk and cost, this study proposes a new model of dolomitization: open thermal convection dolomitization. In this new dolomitization model, Mg2+ in dolomitizing fluids originates mostly from seawater, with a minor component coming from deep hydrothermal fluids. Elevated heat flux (in this case due to the nearby Emei mantle plume) causes spatial temperature variations in the fluid along the circulation flow pathways, resulting in fast and pervasive dolomitization of limestone. The proposed model not only explains the characteristics and distribution of dolostones in the study area but also serves as a reference for predicting the distribution of dolostones in other areas subjected to thermal convection.
We find that corporate innovation is positively related to board diversity as measured by a multidimensional index. The benefit of board diversity is more pronounced for firms with more complex operations, more experienced boards, and stronger external governance, suggesting that diverse boards have superior advising capacity. We find evidence to suggest that firms with diverse boards engage in more exploratory innovations and develop new technology in unfamiliar areas. As a result, they create a larger number of both most-cited and uncited patents. Finally, of the six different aspects of board diversity, professional diversity matters the most for corporate innovation.
The mammary gland, a unique exocrine organ, is responsible for milk synthesis in mammals. Neonatal growth and health are predominantly determined by quality and quantity of milk production. Amino acids are crucial maternal nutrients that are the building blocks for milk protein and are potential energy sources for neonates. Recent advances made regarding the mammary gland further demonstrate that some functional amino acids also regulate milk protein and fat synthesis through distinct intracellular and extracellular pathways. In the present study, we discuss recent advances in the role of amino acids (especially branched-chain amino acids, methionine, arginine and lysine) in the regulation of milk synthesis. The present review also addresses the crucial questions of how amino acids are transported, sensed and transduced in the mammary gland.
The head-on collision between two dust-acoustic solitary waves in a non-magnetized, collisionless and strongly coupled dust plasma has been studied. The application scope of the analytical solution of the head-on collision is given in the present paper by using the particle-in-cell simulation method. It is noted that the analytical results are valid if the amplitudes of both of the solitary waves are small enough. The effects of the coupling parameters on both the head-on collision and the waveform are also studied in the present paper.
Cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause of death in China, and the incidence of ischemic stroke (240 per 100,000 people) is higher than that of hemorrhagic stroke (82 per 100,000 people). More than 80 percent of strokes can be prevented by early control of risk factors. Therefore, identifying and managing high-risk groups is a top priority in preventing stroke. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is a key prediction tool for stratifying stroke risk in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) as follows: zero score is low risk; one is intermediate risk; and two is high risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of the CHA2DS2-VASc scoring system for stratifying ischemic stroke risk in the non-AF population.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in June 2018 for relevant diagnostic studies. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using the QUADAS-2 criteria) were performed independently by two authors. Methodological variation across the selected studies precluded meta-analysis, so the results were synthesized narratively.
Seven prospective studies involving 50,652 patients (6,760 with ischemic stroke) were included. The treatment threshold ranged from two to four across the studies. Three studies reported diagnostic accuracy at a threshold of two, with a sensitivity above 0.8 and a specificity ranging from 0.32 to 0.68. The diagnostic odds ratio was greater than two (seven studies). The two studies using a treatment threshold of four reported a sensitivity of 0.59 to 0.76 and a specificity of 0.43 to 0.69. One study used a threshold of three, with a sensitivity of 0.79 and a specificity of 0.39.
The CHA2DS2-VASc score may be used to predict ischemic stroke in the non-atrial fibrillation population. Treatment thresholds greater than two provide more optimal diagnostic accuracy, although the predictive performance of the CHA2DS2-VASc score may be better in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but not AF.
The second Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) – a nationwide, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey - was initiated in 2016 with the intent of tracking the state of mental health of the general population in Singapore. The study employed the same methodology as the first survey initiated in 2010. The SMHS 2016 aimed to (i) establish the 12-month and lifetime prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) (which included alcohol abuse and dependence) and (ii) compare the prevalence of these disorders with reference to data from the SMHS 2010.
Door-to-door household surveys were conducted with adult Singapore residents aged 18 years and above from 2016 to 2018 (n = 6126) which yielded a response rate of 69.0%. The subjects were randomly selected using a disproportionate stratified sampling method and assessed using World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (WHO-CIDI 3.0). The diagnoses of lifetime and 12-month selected mental disorders including MDD, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, GAD, OCD, and AUD (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence), were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria.
The lifetime prevalence of at least one mood, anxiety or alcohol use disorder was 13.9% in the adult population. MDD had the highest lifetime prevalence (6.3%) followed by alcohol abuse (4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV mental disorders was 6.5%. OCD had the highest 12-month prevalence (2.9%) followed by MDD (2.3%). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders assessed in SMHS 2016 (13.8% and 6.4%) was significantly higher than that in SMHS 2010 (12.0% and 4.4%). A significant increase was observed in the prevalence of lifetime GAD (0.9% to 1.6%) and alcohol abuse (3.1% to 4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of GAD (0.8% vs. 0.4%) and OCD (2.9% vs. 1.1%) was significantly higher in SMHS 2016 as compared to SMHS 2010.
The high prevalence of OCD and the increase across the two surveys needs to be tackled at a population level both in terms of creating awareness of the disorder and the need for early treatment. Youth emerge as a vulnerable group who are more likely to be associated with mental disorders and thus targeted interventions in this group with a focus on youth friendly and accessible care centres may lead to earlier detection and treatment of mental disorders.
Compared with commercial polyolefin membranes, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane prepared by electrostatic spinning has higher porosity, electrolyte uptake, thermal stability, and lithium-ion conductivity, etc. However, poor mechanical performance has largely limited the application of electrospun PAN separators. In this study, PAN/polyimide (PI) composite membrane is prepared by electrostatic spinning to improve the mechanical and electrochemical performances. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis method, and electrochemical methods were used for evaluation of the electrospun composite membrane. The results show that the composite membrane possesses good thermal stability and exhibits better mechanical performance than pristine PAN membrane (increasing by 1.1 times in tension strength). The addition of PI can increase porosity and fluid absorption rate obviously. In addition, the composite membrane has high ionic conductivity (18.77 × 10−4 S/cm), wide electrochemical window (about 4.0 V), and excellent cycling performance. It can retain a discharge specific capacity of 153 mA h/g even after 50 cycles at 0.5 C. The electrospun PAN/PI membrane may be a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery separators.
The finite element simulations show that non-equibiaxial residual stresses (RS) can shift the load–depth curve from the unstressed curve and cause elliptical remnant indentation in spherical indentation. Thus the relative load change between stressed and unstressed samples and the asymmetry of elliptical remnant indentation were employed as characteristic parameters to evaluate the magnitude and directionality of RS. Through theoretical and numerical analysis, the effects of RS on indentation load and remnant impression as well as the affect mechanism were systematically discussed. Finally, two equations which could provide foundations for establishing spherical indentation method to evaluate non-equibiaxial RS were obtained.
We construct a growth model with status preference to explore the effects of patents on innovation and social welfare. We find a nonmonotonic effect of patent protection on innovation. Additionally, the growth-rate-maximizing degree of patent protection decreases when the strength of status preference is larger. The effect of patent protection on social welfare is ambiguous, depending on the strength of status preference. Moreover, wealth inequality widens as patent protection is reinforced. Finally, by using cross-section regression analysis, we document that a nonmonotonic relationship between patent protection and economic growth is statistically significant and that the growth-rate-maximizing degree of patent protection decreases with the strength of status preference.