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This chapter examines possible neuronal networks and mechanisms responsible for the switch from waking to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep. The activated cortical state during waking is induced by the activity of multiple waking neurochemical systems. In contrast to the complex and extensive neurochemical network involved in waking, the neurons inducing slow-wave sleep (SWS) are localized in the lateral preoptic area and the adjacent basal forebrain. A cluster of these neurons is localized in a small nucleus called the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), which is situated above the optic chiasm. Neurons specifically active during paradoxical sleep (PS) were recorded in the posterior hypothalamus (PH) of cats or head-restrained rats. One-third of these GABAergic neurons were immunoreactive for the neuropeptide melanin concentrating hormone (MCH). PS onset would be due to the activation of glutamatergic PS-on neurons from the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus (SLD).
This chapter provides an overview of the fundamental elements of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Four terms describe the magnetic properties of materials, such as contrast agents, used in MRI. These terms are diamagnetism, paramagnetism, superparamagnetism, and ferromagnetism. The persistence of magnetization when the external magnetic field is removed distinguishes ferromagnetic materials from paramagnetic materials. To be useful for MRI, the proton must have spin angular momentum, in addition to the nuclear magnetism. Echo time (TE) and repetition time (TR) are basic parameters of image acquisition. Improvement in the magnitude of the MR signal can improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) uses the same MRI system and methods to make images of blood vessels. The most common MRA technique is based on the time-of-flight (TOF) effect, where blood protons flowing into the slice during the acquisition yield very high signal, but signal from stationary protons is suppressed.
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